Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko | December 31, 2015

The year of the Monkey 2016: Graveyard of the Unicorns

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Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko | December 29, 2015

Dealflow & Peopleflow — My Ventures and Adventures…

Like every New Year since we started counting — we take stock of the past and start setting fresh goals for the future.
So, I’ve been looking around to spruce up my teams, my companies, and myself, for the New Year and beyond.

It’s a bit of a chore and yet I start first by tallying up the things that I am grateful for, and right up there, along with Health, Happiness, and great people around me, I’ve got to count returns on investment as a constant blessing too — only because it allows me to do the great things that I couldn’t otherwise do.

Things like my abundant philanthropy and the charitable giving that increasingly defines my happiness. These returns on invested capital also define what I’ve done over the last thirty years. And they also mark, what I’ve gained from the more than a thousand companies that I’ve either created as part of my Intensive StartUp Weekends, or have invested in as an Angel Investor — over three decades of Angel Capital Leadership practice.

Our ROI is great since most of these companies are StartUps that were born inside my Innovation Master Class, or inside my CEO StartUp Weekends, and CEO Intensive Weekend Class. Judging by the numbers that I’ve taught over the last twenty years, and at a rate of ten to fifteen of these Intensive Weekends per year, with an average creation rate of Ten companies per startup weekend — this brings the numbers of companies created to well above the two thousand mark. But with an attrition rate upwards of fifty percent — we have about a thousand of these organizations remaining alive and kicking around the globe, and we are still and always will be the perennial underdog…

This speaks wonders for my success rate in the industrial process of StartUp company creation. An industrial process, that normally sees a 90% – 98% attrition rate amongst the StartUps created — as described by all the serious incubator and accelerator shops. So it follows that our returns are far better than the industry standard — at least based on the livability of the companies we create. And by funding these very companies that are born out of the best human capital as found in good universities, and in good startup communities the world over — we have created a blockbuster method of company creation and funding.

That in a nutshell is our industrial method of company creation that when coupled with my dealflow and peopleflow strategy, becomes a rather potent force. Furthermore this is a successful ROI because we funnel and fund only the best from the companies that we create by following strategic initiatives. And we also happen to fund the companies that we deem absolute winners and most likely to survive based on flexibility and adaptability — all in a Darwinian playing field of the Startup Hunger games.

We call them “Hunger games” because they invariably run along the lines of fierce competition for the limited resources that we make available to our Startup cohorts. This is another litmus test for our Startups, as they are funneled through the gauntlet of survival where the fittest thrive and the others perish — in a diligent dealflow manner.

The overall investment strategy of our funds, is performing quite well also — all the way from my Seattle days and the Seattle Angels, to my Silicon Valley Angel days, via the vaunted Mill Valley Angels, and to my San Francisco Angel work. This journey was the best part of our fun run, as we run our Startups from the Russian Hill coop and the Potrero Hill coworking spaces, to Castro and Menlo park. And now where we have come full circle back in Seattle again — we are “killing it” with the American Angels and with the American Venture Company.

What can I say — we’ve got GAME.

Now I have always attached great importance to the theory of Investment and to tracking the returns if only for measuring the success rate and seeing how I compare to other investors. And although my Philanthropy and my charitable contributions are my greatest success measurement — the dealflow that arrives on my desk unsolicited and the people flow that similarly drops from the sky, are a great measurement of success also. And am saying this because every month I get upwards of a hundred people who want to work with me, sending me unsolicited resumes and another two to three hundred sending me Business plans and executive summaries ad infinitum. So Thank God I’ve got a giant problem of abundance — and I know how to deal with it, because it is far preferable to the opposite…

I pick and choose the best and the brightest and keep on going. That is my simple solution to this dilemma of abundance. It’s like when you have too many girlfriends — you get to choose. Nice if you can get it, and it creates wealth and prosperity, if you can choose carefully. Soon enough, friends with benefits abound, and you become the boon to the community. A cushy job for a hard worker…
And this is a giant advantage because today the Angel game has changed, and we are all becoming more like Venture Capitalists than Angel Investors — but we choose to maintain the same investment principles as the days of our earliest investments. Because that’s when we learned the craft and the art of investing. Habits die hard.

And yet this is also borne out of a good investment performance strategy, because based on our latest live performance reports — we show us having conquered the mountains of fear, and we even exhibited a positive performance through most of the dismal 2008 Great Recession and even through the current market turmoil that deflated all the Unicorns and all of the Unicorn wannabes.

And we’ve done this by both providing investors with a relatively safe haven in the topsy turvy world of early stage Startups and with a strong performance indicator in both the rising early stage technology companies, and in the more advanced M&A in the Unicorn-wannabes space, that are in a fast declining mood today. You’ve got to also unload fast the dead weight in the secondary markets and to sell off the ones gasping for breath. Acquihires never looked so good as they look today…

Our Angel-Venture capital strategy currently by comparison stands in valuation — well above the S&P 500. And it certainly puts all the VC funds to shame, along with most all the technology heavy hedge funds.

The highlights of our performance long term are as follows: We reach a 29% per annum Gross average annual return. This figure is based on a 30 year hypothetical back tested performance (1985-2015)

If we had to parse the numbers it would be a High Sharpe Ratio – 2.5 Strategy fully hedged, with long and short Low leverage. Max leverage 3.5x High Liquidity. The strategy invests in both early stage illiquid Startup equities and in early Unicorn type equities that are traded in highly liquid secondary markets. As an example: Uber and AirB&B shares today, are the hottest thing since sliced bread, and command great prices at the various secondary market exchanges.

And we also manage some capital for Friends and Family as we are always extra large with our generosity and thus offer these funds in an unofficial form, with No Lock-ins, lock-downs, or redemption penalties. Therefore all funds can be withdrawn by providing a simple 10 day notice prior to the end of month with a redemption date, and always without penalties for early withdraw of part or the whole of the investment. There is always a long line of F&F funds waiting for the chance to coinvest with me anyway, so I can always cover any shortfall in growth capital as needed.

I don’t know if we are going to be doing this same things, with our newest Venture Capital Fund in the Pacific Northwest — but since we’ve had 91% of our activity being in positive territory as defined by positive quarters in our past — we just might. Of the 120 Quarters in the back test we’ve run — there were only 16 negative. The average quarterly percentage return was 6.97%.

Not bad for an early stage Angel guy…

N’est pas?

And today we are proud to announce that we have bolstered our management team with seven Startup industry veterans who have joined our venture capital practice in North America for the new American Venture Capital VC funds to be fleshed out in the early part of the new year 2016.

Dr Pano Kroko – The CEO with 30 years of excellent early stage venture capital expertise. Jessica Mardon – A leader with 20 years of systematic work at Barklays Bank. Trevor Cox – A veteran across the early stage capital structure and company building. Teddy Johnson – Deep experience in Supply Side StartUps and B2B plays. William Crampton – China Capital markets and EB-5 investor visa expertise. Virginia Wilson – Administrative and Technical Venture Capital Associate. Jessica Di Pietro – Venture Capital Associate and China specialist.

Together they constitute a brilliant team of individual talent that will bring forth the rain. And it all comes at an amazing time now that we are actively seeking fresh investors for our New Early Stage Pacific Northwest focused American Venture Capital VC Fund — because the investment strategy is performing rather well.

We are also proud to have bolstered our management team with three industry veterans who have recently joined our advisory board and we are bringing new additions to our Executive Board as well.

So please stay tuned for more…

But let us digress a little, and travel back for a few years…

At the proper age of 18, I built Satori Auctions and Software Inc, that became the first auction site on the Internet. And we also had the auction software to boot. This was the best internet auction software that we used and we also sold to all other auction companies that were budding on the Internet at the time. And this was well before Ebay was even a glimmer of hope in the eyes of Pierre Omidyar the founder of Ebay, who started messing up with beanie-babies and with pez-dispensers that his girlfriend was collecting at the time… Instead we were concentrating on selling high brow art and antiques and the rest is history. There is a good lesson here and I hope that you learn it because I’ve learned it and internalized it well enough.

Go for the plebs and focus on the plebian interests, when you are building a consumer business, because the largest possible user base will elevate a B2C internet play into the stratosphere of success.

So that pioneering instinct of my first big success on the world of technology and science led me to many other firsts since then. And it also reinforced my belief that being a pioneer is hard but many people want to follow on your footsteps.

And I followed with first successes in other areas of technology. In the world of internet crowdsourced advertising with AD2BE, in the the world of cellular wireless communications with several well sold companies, in the world of wireless internet where I built several new companies and where I single handedly jump started the world of Wi-Fi, in the world of Internet in the sky with Teledesic, in the world of Green Finance where I invented Green Bonds and pushed forth the idea of Green Capital as a generator of the Green Economy via the lever of Green Banks, in the world of Angel Capital hedge funds, in the world of crowdsourced ventures, in the worlds of Medicine and biotechnology… and in so many other areas where being a Pioneer gives us the advantage to design the world we want to bring into existence.
And the thing is that when you are a pioneer in one thing — it is always easy to break new ground in other areas of technology and science, because you learn to see the cloud formations and the weather patterns, beyond the visible horizon. That’s how you cna predict where the rain is gonna fall.

That’s the whole trick…

Yet back when I had this company to lead at the ripe old age of 18 and 19, while still attending University — I realized that I was managing a motley crew of individualists. I led a diverse team of professionals who had no regard for anyone else but themselves. Gifted software programers are extreme that way. They were all great, but the next two years of my life, were a baptism of fire for a first time CEO having to jump into a really difficult management job. Am saying this because we had everything in the house. From the seriously disfunctional yet brilliant stoners wearing kilts and going naked at night smoking weed and coding till morning, to more serious drug and alcohol abusers, and highly functional alcoholics and even crack addicts. We had all the flowers in our garden, from the benevolent stoners, to the angry drunks, all the way to sex addicts, and heroin users. Cocaine and alcohol defined everything in between the software sheets back in those early days of Seattle’s software industry. It was skid row by any other name…

Mind You this was the 5th Avenue not the Pioneer Square of Seattle, but back then Belltown was very much the real skidrow. Pretty much the same was going on at Adobe and Microsoft and all the other software houses in Seattle and Redmond back in those days. The programers who could somehow stay coding overnight and over a week to finish a project were seen as Gods — and the only way to do that was with Drugs. So it’s not only that extreme drug culture was fashionable then, but the drug deals and the prostitution were going on outside our doors all day long in the Belltown alleyways. At night you would hardly think of walking alone in that neighborhood.

But we hacked it.

And hacked it well…

Still the fights amongst the employees on company floor — were legend, and people had taken to placing bets on who would win. Now to say that I was a babe in the woods at the time, it would have been an understatement. Yet every time one of these bombshells exploded — people would come running to my desk begging me to solve it.

Being wise beyond my years — when the fight was over, I would simply call the offending parties over and say that I was simply shocked by their behavior, and ask them to get over it quickly, and just keep going forward… and the software project’s fork would be decided on the toss of a coin…

So, the good news is that nothing really amazes me anymore, because I’ve seen it all — and yet I have lived to know that managing people is the hardest thing you have to do when you run a StartUp company. It always comes down to that. You’ve got to kiss a lot of frogs…

Yet I consider myself to be extra fortunate because I always end up having a great team. And although I’m sure it has nothing to do with me personally — the truth is that I’ve always just tried to build the type of company that I was looking for all my life. A place where no one could hold me back, and where we could all call it a Home of Innovation and Growth.

And we all know that boundless profits, and awesome growth, can only come from limitless ambition. The people who have that – invariably do well at my American Venture Companies…

And as always — am going after Big Hairy & Lofty Goals, and that really really helps…

Entrepreneurs – not all of us, but a lot of us — tend to assume that everyone is built like us. Optimistic, self-motivated, driven, hard-working, persistent, and deeply flawed individuals, who live in the future, who want perfection, and who are totally and utterly obsessed by it.

It came as a shock to me all the way through my twenties and thirties to realize that the world is not full of people like that, but rather full of folks who don’t have an over-arching mission to their life. People who don’t have neither a purpose nor a rhyme to their being. People who have No Passion for whatever they are doing.

What a pity…

Who knew?

Over the past 30-plus years of building Tech companies, of managing people, and leading financially secure growth companies into marvelous exits — I have come to understand that it all starts and ends with the team. Therefore I place extra attention to building a strong team and consequently take the interview process seriously, and am extremely careful to hire and fire fast and furiously. This doesn’t mean that I’ve made fewer mistakes, than other leaders — but it means that I have found some amazing people who have joined my thousand companies over time. Naturally the expression “You need to kiss a lot of frogs before you get to your princess” comes to mind, each and every time I meet someone new, who wants to work with me.

Am getting upwards of a hundred unsolicited resumes a month, from people who say that they really want to work with me, and yet I prefer the people that I randomly meet in my world.

Wonder Why?

Because it seems these hundreds of people don’t have the light in their heart to find a way to a personal recommendation and connection and instead want to become an extra weight on my own back…

Or they simply want some of my own light, that I have no problem sharing — because sharing my light does not at all diminish the light of my candle. But in many cases these unsolicited folks proceed wanting to diminish my strength, my work, and my team — by tooting their own self importance.

Who knows why?

Maybe they are scorpions driven to bite their host, or just cancerous individuals — or what I generally call “toxic babies” Since only toxic babies think that trash talking others makes them better in any way. And for me when I hear anyone I interview talking negatively about their previous bosses — I know right then and there that they will not be a good fit for me as well.

You know who you are… You know what You do. And you might as well know that we know you for what you are too. Toxic tar baby…

Therefore I am driven to write this post, because I need to cut down on the inflow of unsolicited emails with CVs and Resumes of toxic idiots, who don’t bather to use LinkedIn or even FB to find a common thread and an individual to make a personal introduction to me but instead want to ride on other’s coattails. And I also write this because I want to quantify and advertise the good qualities I look for, in Great Individuals who have leadership skills — because I want people like that to show up and thus get the many stellar candidates I seek to come work for our companies, and for myself…

Solution?

To solve the first problem – I change my email address quite often. And to solve the second problem I hereby declare that I only want positive, abundance driven, entrepreneurial leaders, to come work with me. I want self starters, not toxic pussies. I want rule breakers — not rule followers. I want thinking folks — not machines.

Capice?

So since I’ve changed my email address again for this new quarter – this is what I look for in the people I allow to work with me:

I’ll speak from experience, because I’ve had the best luck with people who are outsiders but are not insecure. These are the people who can do different things well. I want people who are not part of the establishment and who buy into our vision of building a new world. I want people who are not Banker-Wankers, and who understand that being negative and worried all the time — makes them toxic. These fearful bitches best stay home under the duvet because the world outside can be a tricky, risky, and scary place. And being a leach is not part of the job remit ever in my companies either…

I want people who can be creating the New Rules while breaking the old ones. I want revolutionaries before I want followers. These folks are naturally hungry to learn, eager to establish themselves, comfortable in building new structures, and aren’t looking for someone to treat them like employees. They are self-motivated typically and looking for ways of standing out not fitting in.

The second attribute that I look for are Non-Zero Sum People. The world breaks down into those who believe in abundance, and those who live by scarcity. AVC Capital operates in a world where technology is a layer driving growth in all businesses. The world is no longer about linear growth, but network-driven growth and exponential growth. This is one of the core tenets of our businesses. We invest in exponential growth whether fueled by Moore’s Law or by driving the establishment of consumer data as an asset. We are always looking for the next wave. And if it’s not the rise of the individual cloud — maybe it is the rise of granting real property rights to individuals’ data inside of the perimeter of the Cloud.

Who knows?

Is it the Internet of Things? Or is it the Biocybernetics? Or maybe it is the rise of proteins?

Whatever the opportunity and whatever the process — we are ready to pursue because fundamentally we believe that the opportunities for new assets, new GDP growth in the American economy, and new-found abundance in business and society — is right there, waiting to be seized.

This is the real economy which is driven by entrepreneurs. This is the one where opportunities are clearly limitless, and our capacity to create new jobs, new services, and renewed prosperity, is based in repeatable reality. We place our success not on new assets, and not on resources, but on new technologies and new science. We are focused on growth and expansion and that defines our drive to develop sustainable economics as well…

This is what I call Ecosystem Economics and it starts with the Green Capital, leading to Green Banks, and to the Green Economy.

The study of Cybernetics allows us to see what I truly mean by this…

And now MIT offers many open courses on Cybernetics: http://search.mit.edu/search?site=ocw&client=mit&getfields=*&output=xml_no_dtd&proxystylesheet=http%3A%2F%2Focw.mit.edu%2Fsearch%2Fgoogle-ocw.xsl&requiredfields=WT%252Ecg_s%3ACourse+Home%7CWT%252Ecg_s%3AResource+Home&sectionlimit=WT%252Ecg_s%3ACourse+Home%7CWT%252Ecg_s%3AResource+Home&as_dt=i&oe=utf-8&departmentName=web&filter=0&courseName=&q=Cybernetics+&btnG.x=0&btnG.y=0

Yet before you go out there to study Cybernetics to have an intelligent conversation with me — hoping to hire you — please solve this riddle: How can you tell if someone [prospective employee] is a person fully believing in abundance, or a zero sum game bitch?

Tough eh?

A lot of people talk a fat game about abundance but very few ever live up to it.

So I put them through their paces…

Sure it can be hard to determine whether someone is Zero Sum until you get to know them. But You have to be quite clever to really uncover the way they view the world, and their role in it. So we resort to trying them out…

Am very careful about that because my biggest mistakes in hiring have always been when bringing into the AVC team those Zero Sum individuals, who proceed to become soul suckers and death wagers.

So I avoid them like the plague and when I find them I uproot them and throw them out like a good gardner does with the evil and toxic weeds.

And when they try to pretend that they belong in the Team Abundance — I quickly drive them through their paces and expose them for what they are and show them to the exit swiftly.

I do this religiously because I don’t have time to waste on their sorry ass, since the suck up management time like babies and the good people who need my attention, go unattended.

My team motto at AVC is this simple little ditty: ‘Lead, follow or get out of the way’ This is the way to live at AVC and if you cant’ handle ti — well you know how to follow the green signs. This has been working well for me.

Yet people keep asking me this:

“Can you have a team made up of All Leaders?”

Well it comes down to definitions.

Leaders are people who in the words of Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State, create the conditions of trust so that great things can happen. Leaders are not just generals. I believe it is essential that everyone is a leader in their domain, in their life, and in the pursuit of their professional goals. I want everyone to be a leader at AVC.

My way of provoking that is to set clear goals, but allow people to rise to the challenge themselves rather than putting them under our collective American Venture Company thumb.

Because what you find when you hire for leadership potential, and assume strength, assume success, and assume drive, is not that you always get it. But the system, the company and the team sort out and reject those who can’t keep up, or who run on another operating system – that of win/lose, or people who are arguing for their limitations.

Self-policing mechanisms are the best.

I’ll never forget when I went into the deal team room last year and spoke with one of our firm’s best employees about someone who had just left under a cloud. I said, ‘hey I know it’s not great when someone leaves but….’ He interrupted me and said, ‘Doctor — we want people like that to go to our competitors.’

Indeed.

When I set up American Venture Company on the 4th of July of 2013, the first thing I did was to think and reflect on what I wanted to accomplish:

This is what led me to commit to writing what defines “The American Venture Company Way”

This is my manifesto, because it still defines what makes this firm tick, and what gives us the potential to succeed and prosper, and also dictate the trajectory path forward for us and for our companies.

A path that we have been following to this day is made up of these few little axioms and trite generalizations that work like mantras and memorable quotes for all of us:

Make things happen
Challenge the Status Quo
Be open and honest
Do something that scares you everyday
Always be selling
Believe in yourself
Make tough decision and stick to them
Have the courage to say no
Be an agent of change
Sell yourself first
Push your limits
Evaluate yourself regularly by how well you develop and maximize talent in others, and how easily you give credit for success to those others, even when you deserve all of it…
Especially then

Cancel Meetings

Clarify your role in organizational life
Eliminate any perks and special privileges that you might think you deserve
Never abdicate your responsibilities
Push authority and decision-making to people closest to the action
Begin everything by asking: “What do you think we should do?”
Learn and leverage coaching skills
Stay connected
Manage by wandering around (MBWA)
Say, “Thank you” and “Please” everywhere you go
Always seek feedback
Ask specific and active questions
Own your mistakes and failures
Share your learnings
Maintain personal integrity
Never compromise quality, not even for a deadline
Treat people the way that you want to be treated
Take intelligent risks
Be a team player
Be a tightrope walker
Keep others informed
Take an active role in the industry
Connect the dots that others don’t see
Perform miracles
Be a Lover, not a hater
Be a Builder, not a destroyer
Be the Change You want to see in the world
Make shit happen
Bring the Rain
Better yet — Be the Rainman

That’s what I want..
Rule Followers Need Not Apply.

And if there are any CEOs out there that have an early stage company and they are convinced that we are going to harvest 100 times the current valuation — if were to invest today — I’ll take your call right away.

Email me soonest…

Yours,
Dr Kroko

PS:

May we all be healthy and happy and hope that the New Year will bring us Peace, Prosperity and Harmony — and all the rest will get sorted.

Good Luck.

Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko | December 25, 2015

Worry Not – Fear Not – Dieu Merci

Worry Not – Fear Not – Dieu Merci

There are a lot of things to be thankful for this year — yet fear is not one of them.

We have a lot of things to do for the New Year — yet worry is not one of them.

Clearly a lot s expected from those to whom a lot is given.

So in summation — we best be optimistic and cheerful because the new year doesn’t like grouches. As a matter of fact — nor do I.

We all know that sometimes things are tough. I know — but we don’t need to worry about it.

We should actually avoid any kind of worry because it is simply not helpful.

So, worry not.

Worry not — not only because it’s not helpful, but worry not, because it will not alter the balance of any given situation.

Fear Not.

Fear Not — because fear trips you up…
Fear is just an exercise in futility. Nothing else…

Don’t worry about the future.

Or worry, enough to be motivated to do something about it.

But if you are given to worry — do this fully knowing that worrying is as effective as trying to solve an algebra equation by chewing gum.

Worry Not — because the world is getting better — year after year.

Fear Not — because it makes you Free. Fearlessness makes a person fully human and almost Godlike in our capacity to reach for the sky.

Living without fear allows you to soar high and live the promise of humanity fully.

Remove the nasty baggage of fear and worry and you’ll get to the highest ground you’ve ever been.

Even when all around you — you hear worrisome stories and bloody events that make you cringe — you ought to stay free of fear and clean of worry.

Count the things you need to be grateful for. For one you are reading this. And you’ve got a Life to live…

So why worry?

I know that you see it on TV and it makes you afraid because the terrorists are gunning down people in some far off desert…

Turn off the TV and instead try to help the refugees streaming out of that violence. That should cure your fears quickly…

News is hurtful. TV is daft. Newspapers lead with awful bloody stories. We know that if it bleeds it leads…

After all this blog is called the Bleeding Edge for being beyond the cutting edge of progress and technology.

And we all know that negative stories lead in the press, because they have such an easier time getting attention and getting talked about thus getting around…

And there are plenty of problems to fight against and issues to fix, and conflicts to settle.

But we should not lose sight of all the reasons why we need to be Thankful for…

We should not lose sight of the incredible progress happening around the world, because of the war in Syria and the Refugee crisis stemming from that.

We can sort that and we are working to solve the Refugee crisis problem and we certainly will — but we also need to help the world feel good about itself and regain a measure of Optimism easily lost amid today’s headlines.

And of course we still have got lots of work to do ahead of us to head off all other issues that threaten our lives — but in good measure, and in good time, we’ll do all that, because we also have a Life to live for…

And the scientific progress will bear me out since Science has been making great strides so far and especially in 2015. And it is now that we learn to feel good in a scientific way, because today we can design our Life Experience as closely held real virtualities, or pre-configured theaters-of-experience, that can work miracles to catalyze shifts in our thinking and in our moods.

So why be fearful now that for the first time in history we can design “spas for the mind” that combine controlled sets and settings, and the ingestion of psychedelic agents, in order to provide entry points for designed interior experiences that engage subjectivity in profound ways.

We are well and truly advanced since from our humble accident of DNA and human coupling — we’ve gone to the place and time, where we can clone anyone and anything. We could even package the best desirable traits for the kids we want, and these kids can be the perfect “junior” that looks just like us.

And we all have sets of beliefs that allow us to define our own religion. Yet aside from that — we could design our own spirituality [a-la-carte] and we could even exercise the need for “Love” via AI, and provide the necessary chemistry in our brains. Oxytocin and other endorphins can become our staple delivery of moods on demand.

For the first time in history we have the Technology, the Psychology, the Neurobiology, and the Psychopharmacology, to design Neural Nirvanas and to rest ourselves and cycle back the sleep mechanism in shorter formats that will allow us to rest in the blink of an eye…

We’ve gone to space but the interior space we have not explored. Now is the time to do just this. This is the internal joy-ride that will allow us to become Paradise Explorers, without the affliction of alcohol, nor the addiction of drugs, and without the related aphorisms.

So even if we are given to “worry” – we can overcome the difficulties, and get ahead of ourselves. Psychological disorders, Bipolar depression, schizophrenia, and PTSD, can all be treated today, and so can physical illness.

So why worry?

Or better yet…

Why can’t we treat worry and fear?

Maybe because our fight or flight instinct takes over and worry is the manifestation of Fear and that is where the real troubles in life start.

Fear begets fear and this is where people worry themselves sick since the illogical fears are apt to be borne out of things that never crossed your worried mind. Instead it’s the kind of things that blindsided you when you least expect it.

Letting go of fear is crucial and our capacity to find Courage is the best way to overcome the incapacitating value of fear. Put the fear mongers in their place and brush them aside before they manage to convey their silly message. Fear takes away your control and separates you from your power.

So let go of worry and fear because we can get ahead together — as we have this far.

And what is the breakthrough that I have found is that when you are Thankful for whatever you have — you become fearless. Be Grateful for anything and everything and suddenly — you become worry free.

Let’s be Thankful for all the Progress Humanity has demonstrated this far…

Still we know that we’ve got some way to go before we rest…

Truly — let’s be thankful because the United Nations reported this year that global child mortality [from all causes] has more than halved since 1990. That means an additional 7 million kids under the age of five survive early childhood each year — as compared to the 1980s.

Seven million Mothers rejoice because their families have avoided the pain of burying their child in 2015, who would have gone through it, if the world hadn’t seen two and a half decades of historically unprecedented progress against childhood illnesses.

Health improves everywhere around the world.

So you too should stay healthy.

Eat simple nourishing foods. Drink plenty of clean tap water. And make an effort to prepare your own food with some measure of love for yourself and others.

Treat people kindly…

Communicate gently and fiercely…

Do this because in this age of full on telecommunications and thousands of TV channels — you’ve only got one channel to tell your truth. So use it wisely before people switch to another. Make this your communication priority. Be clear, be honest, be succinct. Use your communication to help people and not hurt anyone. Use your words to be an honest dealer. And always be honest with your words. Speak with integrity. Say only what you mean. And mean what you say…

Avoid using the words to speak against anyone, don’t point fingers, don’t judge, others or yourself, and certainly don’t gossip. Instead use the power of your words in the direction of truth, justice, beauty, and love.

Be Clear and Personable.

Don’t expect to be liked but don’t take anything personally either. Nothing others do is because of you. What others say and do, is because of them. People themselves act out as a projection of their own reality, their own dreams, and their own drama. When you are immune to the opinions and actions of others — you won’t be the victim of needless suffering.

Don’t take anything for granted. Don’t make assumptions. Don’t expect anything and you won’t get disappointed.

However you ought to find the courage to ask questions and to express what you really want. Communicate with others as clearly as you can, in order to avoid misunderstandings, sadness, and drama.

By not taking things personally, you can completely transform your life.

Be Optimistic, in your own Life, and in all of Life.

Stay positive about yourself and about the world around you.

Become a beacon of Hope for those less fortunate than yourself. Give and give again. Be a giver as a default state of being.

Trust that the returns of anonymous giving are far greater than the returns of compound interest. This has been discovered for Millennia now…

Trust that the State of our World is constantly improving. Take my word on this, because the year 2015 saw continued progress toward better quality of life for the considerable majority of the planet, alongside technological breakthroughs and political agreements that suggest the good news might continue next year and beyond.

Today the world is better-educated, better-fed, healthier, freer, and more tolerant — and it looks set to get richer, too.

Now at the end of 2015 there is about 7 million kids under the age of five that are still alive, because this many fewer children are dying due to childhood diseases each and every year — as compared to 1980’s.

With that much tragedy and misery avoided — these diseases are rarer than they were before 2015 — and there is every reason to hope they will be even less prevalent in 2016 and beyond.

Some of the Millennial Development Goals are working.

On the local level in these United States we now have affordable healthcare and the hope of most people getting insured. Hate and Violence are diminishing. Still with major acts of violence in America grabbing the headlines — the future looks better, despite the seeming epidemic of mass-shootings. Apparently, the country is still far safer than it was in the past.

The latest FBI statistics, suggested that the trend toward lower rates of violent crime in the United States that began in the early 1990s continued at least through 2015. Indeed there were nearly 3,000 fewer violent crimes that year than the year before and more than 600,000 fewer than they were in 1995. That’s a 35% percent violent crime decline over this period.

The latest data from the United Nations also suggest that this is part of a global trend. Just to examine one category of violent crime — homicide rates — have dropped by an estimated 6% percent, in the countries for which data was available between 2000 and 2015.

Sadly the same is not true of terrorism and war. Worldwide, both war and terrorism, have risen according to the most recent available data. Combined they claimed more victims in 2013, 2014, and 2015, than in the few years immediately before.

Still beginning in 2011, Syria helped reverse longer-term progress toward ever-fewer global battle deaths — while 2015 may be even worse than 2014, in terms of Syrian deaths.

The resultant deaths also force the Refugee situation. And the rising death rate in Syria is on an atrocious growth trajectory, as reported by the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

And that suggests more global war related and collateral civilian deaths this year than in any year since 2010.

Yet there are hopes for this problem to subside.

The US-Iran nuclear deal struck this summer, provides some evidence that progress toward peaceful settlement of disputes is possible, and the Syrian proxy war might de-escalate. Progress both in the region and worldwide via diplomatic means — helps us all sleep better at night, and alleviates the pressures that cause people to up stakes, and leave their homes behind in search of a new life and safety.

Still the growth of refugee flows away from Syria and Iraq constitutes the greatest people’s movement in Europe since the German Nazis in their terrible extermination of so many people — drove upwards of twenty millions to resettle across the globe.

Today, unlike the era of the German Nazis — the numbers of ongoing wars and battle deaths are still far below their levels of the 1970s and 1980s. But the numbers of the Refugees and of the internally displaced people is still growing massively.

Furthermore, terrorism, war, and murder together, remain a minor cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that 119,463 people died in incidents of “collective violence and legal intervention,” such as civil war, and 504,587 died from episodes of “interpersonal violence,” such as homicide, in 2012, the most recent year for which data is available. In the same year, according to the Global Terrorism Index, 11,133 people died in terrorist attacks—suggesting terrorism accounted for about 1.8 percent of violent deaths worldwide. And for all that terrorism deaths have increased since 2012, they remain responsible for perhaps three hundredths of one percent of global mortality. All collective and interpersonal violence together accounted for around 1.1 percent of total deaths in 2012. Rabies was responsible for three times as many deaths as terrorism that year. Stomach cancer killed more people than murder, manslaughter, and wars combined. And the good news about many of the more important causes of global mortality is that the world continued making progress against them in 2015.

Yet we persist in being optimistic because if we take two other fellow horsemen of the apocalypse alongside war: One is famine and the other is pestilence. Both were on the defensive in 2015. There were fears of drought across the Sahel causing a famine this year—especially in conflict zones such as South Sudan, Darfur, and the Horn. Yet while the risk of major food shortages in 2016 is rather high — this fear hasn’t materialized yet. Today famine deaths are increasingly rare and increasingly limited to the few areas of the world suffering complete state collapse. Related to that, the proportion of the world’s population that is undernourished has slipped from 19 percent to 11 percent between 1990 and today.

Now let’s look at disease: Through the course of November 2015, only four cases of Ebola were confirmed in the three West African countries at the epicenter of the 2014-2015 outbreak. Roughly 11,315 people were either known or believed to have died in that epidemic worldwide, but compared to a 2014 Center for Disease Control forecast that, absent intervention, there might be as many as 1.4 million Ebola cases in Liberia and Sierra Leone alone by mid-January 2015, the world got off lightly, with total cases resulting from the outbreak standing at around 29,000 today. An Ebola vaccine that underwent trials in Guinea this spring proved 100 percent effective, suggesting future outbreaks of the disease should be far less deadly. The world has also seen progress toward a partially effective malaria vaccine this year.

The rollout of older vaccines over the past several years has also saved more lives than ever before this year, since vaccination protects for life, or at least multiple years. In August came news that there had not been a single case of polio detected in Africa in over 12 months, meaning the disease is now known to exist only in Pakistan and Afghanistan. What used to be a global killer, with 350,000 cases as recently as 1988, is on the verge of extinction. And just since 2000, worldwide cases of measles have dropped by more than two-thirds, saving more than 17 million lives—largely thanks to increased vaccination rates.

Meanwhile, the United Nations reported this year that global child mortality from all causes has more than halved since 1990. That means 6.7 million fewer kids under the age of five are dying each year compared to 1990. Nearly 7 million families avoided the pain of burying their child in 2015 who would have gone through it if the world hadn’t seen two and a half decades of historically unprecedented progress against childhood illness. 2015 also saw the lowest-ever proportion of kids out of primary school according to the UN—less than one in 10. The number of kids out of school has fallen from 100 million in 2000, to a projected 57 million in 2015.

Civil and political rights also continued their stuttering spread. While 2015 saw rights on the retreat in countries including Turkey and Thailand, the number of electoral democracies worldwide remains at a historic high according to Freedom House—at 125, up from just 69 countries in 1989 (though less than half of these are considered fully “free;” there is still a lot of progress to be made). This year, there were peaceful and democratic transitions of power in settings as diverse as Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Myanmar, and Argentina. And Saudi Arabia held local elections where, for the first time ever, women were allowed to stand as candidates and vote.

We ought to stay optimistic because across the world there are also many serious advances in Equality, and common prosperity. Equality for one has been advanced. In the United States this was the year that gay marriage became the law of the land. And once again events in America reflect a broad trend worldwide. This time toward greater acceptance. Mozambique decriminalized same-sex relationships in June, and gay marriage became legal in Ireland in November. In 2006, the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association reported, there were 92 countries with laws prohibiting sexual acts between consenting same-sex adults. This year, the number dropped to 75. Added to the trend of growing sexual and reproductive freedom worldwide, China finally abandoned its one-child policy in 2015.

So the world is better-educated, better-fed, healthier, freer, and more tolerant — and it looks set to get richer, too. In October, the IMF forecast 4.0 percent growth for emerging and developing countries for 2015—slower than the 7-8 percent that they managed through much of the last 15 years but nonetheless considerably ahead of population growth. The World Bank declared in September that, for the first time ever, less than 10 percent of the global population lived in extreme poverty, on less than $1.90 per day. That is down from 37 percent as recently as 1990. There are a lot of reasons to think the poverty measures the World Bank creates are flawed. That said, the decline certainly reflects an underlying reality: Many of the poorest countries in the world, and many of the poorest people in them, have seen dramatic income gains over the last few years.

Developing countries and the industrialized world alike also saw improved prospects thanks to continued support for globalization. The agreement on the Trans-Pacific Partnership, for all of its myriad drawbacks, demonstrated that some of the world’s largest economies remain committed to open trade. And despite the nativist backlash across Europe provoked by the Paris attacks, German Chancellor Angela Merkel held to her country’s policy of enlightened self-interest toward migration flows. At the end of November, she tried to convince seven European countries to resettle as many as 400,000 refugees as part of her efforts to see the European Union admit at least 300,000 refugees from the conflict each year. Similarly, French President Francois Hollande reiterated a pledge to take in 30,000 refugees after the Paris attacks, stating that the French should remain “true to our values.”

As for the fast warming planet and CLimate Change — we saw that the Paris climate conference in December resulted in a Deal. All the 200 countries that participated — demonstrated renewed resolve to tackle global climate change together. Absent of any policies enacted to slow climate change since 2010, the world might have been more than 4 degrees Celsius hotter in 2100 than pre-industrial temperatures.

Today all the existing policies to cut emissions, reduced that forecast to 3.6 degrees, and the additional pledges in Paris brought it to 2.7 degrees Celsius.

Of course these are just scientific estimates; and in addition, the countries that spend the most on research and development of renewable-energy technology like solar power agreed to double Research and Development budgets for renewable energies by 2020.

A private-sector “Breakthrough Energy Coalition” whose members have $350 billion in collective holdings pledged concurrently to invest more in energy innovations to reduce the cost of renewable power. Because electricity is so central to economic development, investments like these are the only way to avert dramatic climate change without slowing global progress against poverty.

Even before Paris, world leaders were coming together this year, despite their often-dangerous differences, to work toward common goals.

In New York in September we all agreed to a set of “sustainable development goals” to try to hit by 2030. The targets suggested that the world could wipe out extreme poverty, reduce deaths of those under the age of five by millions each year, and guarantee all children go to school and learn while they are there. Achieving all that would require historically unprecedented policy changes that haven’t even begun. Still, the goals point in the right direction: They build on the immense progress the world has achieved over the last 15 years and suggest that, working together, humanity can do even better over the next 15. The combination of that progress with that potential is why 2015 was the best year in history for the average human being to be alive — and why 2016 will almost certainly be even better.

So remember to always Do Your Best and the best will be there for You.

And if this seems to be too optimistic — don’t fret, because it is. That’s how you win…

Just remember that whatever you feel and whatever you hope for yourself and for the world — You shall be proven right. Either way you’ll be Right on top of your predictions.

Somehow we make our own reality. Same as we prepare the bed that we are going to lay upon. So perhaps we should take care to make it proper and happy…

And indeed some people call us Polyannish, and threaten us, because they are afraid of our optimism.

And some others claim that we forgot our rose tinted glasses permanently on…

And there are even some people who keep declaring that 2015 was nothing but full of bad news.

But we don’t believe them because the facts and the data don’t support that view of the world.

And since for every item on their list of disasters, there are at least ten good things that prove our point of positive developments worldwide for all humanity — we are winning the argument each and every time. And we further win each and every day we live through with progress and development…

That also happens to be the rough ratio of human beings who have been gradually improving their lives and those of their children, for every one whose luck went worse.

Should we attend to the latter? Sure… But one reason we care is that technology allows us to see suffering everywhere, in images that tweak and tug at human empathy. The same burgeoning and empowering technologies that are now empowering the Black Lives Matter Movement. So that, too, is a kind of good news.

We face horrid problems, not least of which has been the deliberate effort by fanatics in the US to destroy politics and negotiation as a problem solving methodology. And gloom merchants feed into this vileness, by getting everyone nodding glumly and cynically that things are worse, when they are not.

Make no mistake, cynicism is the tool of playground bullies who have attacked enthusiastic problem solvers ever since we each were six years old. The curled lip sneer and shrug of knowing-nihilism. Anyone promoting that attitude does not deserve to claim they are progressive or eager for a better world.

This is why dogmatics of both the far left and the entire Right so hate, the clear statistical proof that per capita violence and poverty have been steeply declining across most — not all — of the world. A sane person would look at these facts and feel encouraged that a can-do spirit might accomplish so much more.

Are the Kassandras even remotely aware that 2015 was far and away the best year for human exploration of space and the cosmos?

Are the Luddites and the Naysayers aware that we are vastly better than the lamented 1960s and the taxpayers who funded it all with pennies? We all seem to be unaware.

We seem to be unaware of that fact, and of the myriad other fields where rapid advances are accelerating, and progress is manifest each and every day.

And all this, despite, a clearcut and open, ongoing War-on-Science, declared by the far-left and the Entire Right.

There is good news and bad.

Politics is not one of them. It’s just a sport. Political sport and need not be taken for granted either way. Same goes for ideology and religion… With 13,000 religions actively pursued around the world — what makes you think that yours is the best one. As for ideology — please don’t get me started…

Today we are all accustomed to the accursed pendulum swinging wildly to the left and then reverting to the right. Always and forever this will hold true. OK?

So no need to worry too much about it or to fear the progress of it all. The more things change the more they remain the same.

And the perfect should never become the enemy of the good, because the only good and constant thing about the Universe and about our Life is that is constantly changes. Always and forever… Change is our Reality. Get used to it.

So let’s not pursue perfection because it simply does not exist. Nor should we allow our need to save the world, and to do the big things — to stop us from doing the little things that truly matter. Always remember to practice the small acts of kindness and offer the minimal good that we can carry forth quietly.

Do these little things because helping the beggars does not distract us from our enlightenment pursuits. Instead it actually is the only thing that offers a dose of enlightment in our own lifetimes…

Being moderate and pragmatic about what we believe is far more important than engaging in problem solving, and in negotiating for our progress. Charity starts at home and it begins with self love…

Our enemy is not left or right, or radical Islam, nor radical Christianity — but the underlying hatred of hope that propels so many of the cynical whiner-bullies out there, who would rather wallow in declarations of despair, and spread the toxic gospel of fear — than choose to lift themselves up, and choose to simply live within the human family as a contributing member.

This is the way to actually help.

The World will get to be a different place anyway — so why not try to make it a better one?

So do your best to advance the World’s goals. Yet one must keep in mind that doing your best is going to change from moment to moment and it will be different when you are fully optimistic and healthy — as opposed to when you are not. Accennuate the positive and diminish the negative. It’s always your choice…

Still under any circumstance, simply do your best, and avoid self-judgment, self-abuse, and regret.

The world is your oyster. Just because the past didn’t turn out like you wanted — it doesn’t mean the future can’t be better than you ever imagined.

Now go out and own it.

Life is to be ruled like a master rules his pawns, or a painter paints his canvas.

Write your own story and try to be helpful.

Manage to lead your Life forward.

Don’t let it ever rule you or run you, because if you allow the events and the difficulties dictate your course — you shall be ruined.

Celebrate.

Celebrate, and make an extra effort to enjoy this season — because for the Average Human Being, 2015 is perhaps the best Year in History, and 2016 can be even better.

Merry Christmas to all.

And I sincerely hope that we all have a Happy and prosperous New Year.

Yours,
Dr Kroko

PS:

Please keep this in mind:

There is No Way to Do Wrong, if You Always Aim to Do the Right Thing…

So go out in Peace and Love and have some fun along the way…

Worry Not – Fear Not – Dieu Merci

PRESS RELEASE — FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

CONFERENCE ON 12/19/2015 AT ST MARK’S CATHEDRAL SEATTLE

Contact: Executive Director Ms Virginia C. Winslow or Assistant Director Ms Jessica DiPietro

 Conference to take place in Seattle, WA. on Saturday, December 19th, at St. Mark’s Cathedral

 ”Why My State Won’t Close its Doors to Syrian Refugees”

(Syrian Refugee Crisis & Relief — Think Tank Meeting of the Churchill Society Saturday 19th Dec. @ St Mark’s Anglican Cathedral in Seattle)

On December 19th, 2015 the Churchill Society is partnering with a variety of local relief organizations to host a forum on the Syrian refugee crisis. Discussion will take place at the global, national, and local levels, and a high degree of guest participation is encouraged.

 Notable speakers include: Dean Steven Thomason – St Mark’s, Dr Mark Markuly – Seattle University, Dr Jawad Khaki – Muslim Association of the Northwest, Sahar Fathi – Leadership Development, Arsalan Bukhari – Director of the Council on American-Islamic Relations, Quratulain Khan – CEO of Americans for Immigrants and Refugees, Mahnaz Eshetu – Director of the Refugee Women’s Alliance, Jonathan Scanlon – Senior Advocacy Advisor at OxFam America, Dan Samuelson – Office Director of World Relief Seattle, Dr Pano Kroko, and many others.

Organized by the CHURCHILL SOCIETY the foremost International Forum and Think Tank organization http://www.meetup.com/ChurchillSociety/ and Dr Pano Kroko.

Today, with strong opinions all across the globe, people in America are struggling to understand what the Syrian Refugee Crisis means at all levels of our society. Our renowned panelists will shed light on what these issues mean close at home. 

 This Churchill Society Think Tank Meeting takes place at St. Mark’s Cathedral, 10th Ave E, Seattle, WA [Bloedell Hall] Capitol Hill.

 9:00am – Coffee, Tea & Registration, 9:30am – Leadership Keynote, 10:00am – Global Panels, 11:00am – National Panels, Noontime Lunch, 1:00pm – Local Panels, 3:00pm – Roundtables, 4:00pm – Workshops, 5pm Closing Keynote Speech by Dr Pano Kroko on our State, on our Union, on our Economic Development & on our Democracy {E Pluribus Unum}, 5:30pm Cocktail Reception & Networking…

 

 RSVP and learn more here at: http://www.meetup.com/ChurchillSociety/

Tickets and support for Syrian Refugee Relief here: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/why-my-state-wont-close-its-doors-to-syrian-refugees-tickets-19814079445

Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko | December 17, 2015

WISHFUL THINKING & THE COMPLETE PARIS ACCORD

In Paris back in 1928, representatives of fifteen countries, including the United States, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, gathered in the French capital and signed the General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy. Put together by Frank B. Kellogg, the U.S. Secretary of State, and Aristide Briand, the French foreign minister, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, as it is usually called, sought to outlaw warfare as a means of settling territorial disputes. Despite the treaty’s lack of an enforcement mechanism, its signing was hailed in some quarters as a historic turning point that would help keep the world at peace. In 1929, Kellogg received the Nobel Peace Prize; by 1933, sixty-five countries had agreed to abide by the agreement.

Within a decade, the world was at war.

Today the new Paris Accord — the Paris Climate Deal to slow down climate change was thrashed out in Le Bourget conference hall of COP21, by 195 countries again with AMerica at the lead.

Yet similarly today’s Paris Accord fails to map out steep enough cuts in carbon dioxide emissions to limit global warming to the target of at least 2 degrees Celsius global warming (3.6 Fahrenheit), various CLimate & Earth scientists who studied the agreement and participated in the discussions have said.

Negotiations on this Paris Agreement to curb greenhouse gas emissions, blamed for warming the planet and disrupting the climate, were extended by a day and a half to Saturday night in order to overcome the stubborn divisions about the limits to warming gases in order to stop advanced global warming. This was the main sticky point among the 195 countries taking part all along.

Also conditionality and thus the deal text, released on Saturday night, also proposes that emissions peak “as soon as possible”, with rapid cuts thereafter, towards achieving “greenhouse gas emissions neutrality in the second half of the century”.

Neutrality refers to all greenhouse gases, not just carbon dioxide, and means net zero man-made emissions from all sectors.

Overall emissions would need to be reduced to as close to zero as possible and any remaining would have to be soaked up by forests and soils or buried underground by costly technology such as carbon capture and storage.

So we have to ask this: Could the Paris Climate Deal save our civilization?

Maybe.

And although that may not sound like a ringing endorsement — Mr Paul Krugman the noted economist claims, that it’s actually the best climate news we’ve had in a very long time because until very recently there were two huge roadblocks in the way of any kind of global deal on climate: China’s soaring consumption of coal, and the implacable opposition of America’s Republican Party. But there have been important changes on both fronts.

And although China and India will keep on building coal fired power stations for the next twenty years — still there is a visible shift in Chinese attitudes. China faces a huge air quality crisis, brought on largely by coal-burning, which makes it far more willing to wean itself from the worst form of fossil fuel consumption. And China’s rapidly growing middle class demands a higher quality of life, including air that’s relatively safe to breathe.
Which brings us to the U.S. Republican attitudes: the G.O.P. is spiraling ever deeper into a black hole of denial and anti science conspiracy theorizing. The game changing news is that this may not matter as much as we thought, new technology has fundamentally changed the rules.

Scientists said the targets in the deal were too lax to achieve the goal of limiting global temperature rises above pre-industrial times to “well below 2C”, while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5C (2.7F).

The rise in average global temperatures above pre-industrial times will exceed 1C this year alone, Britain’s Met Office has said. And another degree next year and so on, so forth…

More than 100 developing nations favor the 1.5C goal, saying higher temperature rise targets will not only bring more floods, droughts, decertification and sea level rises that could swamp low-lying islands from the Pacific to the Caribbean — but cannot be guaranteed to stop at 2 degree Celsius either.

There is not one reasonable scientist who claims that there is a certain way to stop Climate Warming at an exact level — nor is there a claim that we have an exact science to stop the global warming at any level…

“This is wishful thinking. You might call it pie in the sky,” Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, head of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, has said.

He said emissions neutrality would have to be reached by 2050 to achieve the 1.5C goal, yet the text was too vague by talking about the second half of the century – up to 2099.

To meet a 2C limit, global emissions would have to peak by 2020 with net zero emissions of carbon dioxide by 2070, according to the U.N. panel of climate scientists.

Current national emissions cut plans put the planet on a far higher path, unless the world could abruptly shift to “negative emissions”, such as soaking up greenhouse gases from nature after 2030 with new technologies, Schellnhuber said.

Hansen seems to agree that this whole thing is wishful thinking… and he accuses the UN and the United States for a sham and fake agreement that will save no one.

Screen Shot 2015-12-16 at 4.56.30 PM

J’ Accuse…

So far, more than 180 nations have put forward plans to cut emissions but they put the world on a path to warming anywhere from 2.7C to 3.7C, according to scientific studies.

Scientists also said the language was weaker than in previous drafts of the Paris Deal…

“This has been replaced by rather vague formulations,” said Stefen Kalbekken, from the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research in Oslo.

Meeting a 1.5C limit would require higher energy prices to spur investment in cleaner energy sources, bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, which captures carbon dioxide and stores it underground.

“It will need the development of a capacity for disposing of CO2 on a reasonably large scale, either captured from the air or from emissions from fossil fuels that countries or companies simply cannot bring themselves to leave in the ground,” said Myles Allen, professor of geosystem science at the University of Oxford.

CCS technology is still small scale and very costly. There are currently 15 projects in operation worldwide.

The International Energy Agency has said that by 2040, four billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions must be captured to keep global warming at bay, which is 100 times more than the total CCS projects expected to be online in the next 18 months.

Still today President Obama, President Hollande, and Prime Minister Cameron are right: the climate-change agreement in Paris over the weekend was historic. Countries from the developed and developing world alike—a hundred and eighty eight of them—came together and pledged to reduce carbon emissions and limit global warming to “well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels.” After the deal was finalized, many prominent environmentalists joined the politicians in hailing it as a turning point. Joe Romm, who founded the influential Climate Progress blog, called it a “literally world-changing deal.” May Boeve, the executive director of 350.org, said, “This marks the end of the era of fossil fuels.”

Perhaps the most telling verdict came from Jeffrey Sachs, the director of the Earth Institute, at Columbia University, who, writing in the Financial Times, called the Paris agreement a “diplomatic triumph.” With a big push from the Obama Administration and the input of China, India, and other developing countries, officials from the French foreign ministry shepherded 195 nation’s representatives through a text that most all sides could agree upon.

They ensured there was no repeat of what happened in Copenhagen six years ago, when a similar meeting COP15 broke up in horrible acrimony. But the cost of bringing all sides together was considerable. Rather than reaching a binding agreement, with economic incentives for good behavior and sanctions for scofflaws, the delegates settled for a what a skeptic might describe as a common expression of good intentions.

The only way to ensure the participation of the United States and China was to make the agreement non-binding. The Obama Administration insisted on it, well aware that the US Senate wouldn’t ratify a formal treaty. China, which has long insisted that countries should be allowed to tackle climate change in their own ways, sided with Washington. If a country fails to live up to what it promised in Paris, there is no obvious recourse beyond naming and shaming.

Not only is the accord voluntary but countries got to set their own targets for carbon emissions. As I noted a couple of weeks ago, the Paris talks were a bit like a potluck dinner, where guests bring what they can. The participant countries offered up a wide range of emissions targets, which, taken together, scientists reckon, will be insufficient to keep warming to two degrees Celsius, never mind the more ambitious target of 1.5 C that was also mentioned in the agreement. Defenders of the Paris accord concede this is a weakness. But they point to the fact that, beginning in 2020, countries will be obliged to lay out more ambitious targets every five years.

Another potential problem with the agreement is that it doesn’t directly tackle one of the biggest sources of man-made carbon emissions: coal. While the United States, the world’s second-largest burner, is taking steps to reduce its reliance on this fuel source, China, India, and SOuth Africa — respectively the biggest and third-biggest and fourth biggest coal users, are still building coal-fired power stations at a rapid clip. According to some estimates, more than a thousand more of them could be constructed during the next decade or so.

In all likelihood, the Paris accord won’t prevent this from happening.

The basic idea behind the agreement is that, with financial aid from rich countries like the United States and Germany, developing economies, such as India and Vietnam, will gradually switch to renewable sources of energy, such as solar and wind. But the West’s commitment to contribute a hundred billion dollars a year, at least to this cause, is also voluntary. And, in any case, most experts believe it would cost much more than a hundred billion dollars a year for developing countries to switch to renewables.

Finally, the accord doesn’t include a tax on carbon, which would change the financial incentives facing individual decision-makers, such as power suppliers and motorists. Instead of seeking to use the price mechanism, the agreement largely relies on a top-down approach in which governments order energy companies and others to meet certain targets. (Individual countries are, of course, free to use carbon taxes, or cap-and-trade schemes, if they want to. China, for one, appears to be moving in this direction.)

However the Paris Accord gives a huge boost as an incentive to the energy revolution of Renewables, Clean Technology, and sustainable energy.

And when the Capital markets price the risk of using fossil fuels and financing their producers and utilities they will signal with fervor towards using their magnificent leverage towards Clean Energy.

Many people still seem to believe that renewable energy is hippie-dippy stuff, not a serious part of our future. The reality, however, is that costs of solar and wind power have fallen dramatically, to the point where they are close to competitive with fossil fuels even without special incentives — and progress on energy storage has made their prospects even better. Renewable energy has also become a big employer with many installation that deliver huge value to investors and consumers alike all the while producing No Emissions that warm the planet.

This energy revolution has two big implications. The first is that the cost of sharp emission reductions will be much less than even optimists used to assume… The second is that given a moderate boost — the kind that the Paris accord could provide — renewable energy could quickly give rise to new interest groups with a positive stake in saving the planet, offering an offset to the fear mongering politics and pressure groups of the Kochs, the Exxons, and other such animals.

Of course, it could easily all go terribly wrong too, and then we could all go belly up, and the agreement will be deemed to be pear shaped from the get go. Because if and when President Trump, or President Cruz, or President Rubio, might arrive — they are sure to scuttle the whole deal, and by the time we get another chance to do something about the fast warming climate it could be too late, and we’ll go the way of the dinosaurs.

Screen Shot 2015-12-11 at 7.41.22 AM

But it doesn’t have to happen that way.

Because I don’t think it’s naïve to suggest that what came out of Paris gives us real reason to hope.

Indeed it does give us reason to have HOPE in an area where hope has been a difficult commodity to come by and all too scarce in our world…

So maybe we’re not all doomed after all.

Insofar as there is any beguiling economic logic behind the accord, it relies on the twentieth-century notion of indicative planning.

Now that the nations of the world have signaled they are serious about reducing carbon emissions, the argument goes, there will be a huge wave of private-sector investment in renewable energy, and in other environmentally friendly technologies, such as carbon sequestration.

By the time the emissions reductions proffered in Paris start to bite, the technology will be in place for countries to meet their power needs in a green and cost effective manner.

Yours,
Dr Kroko

PS:

That is the optimistic scenario, and, after all the setbacks of the past twenty years, this is an occasion to be hopeful. In the United States and other western countries, the “dash to gas” is substituting a relatively clean fossil fuel for a much dirtier one. Some genuinely green technologies, such as solar panels and wind turbines, have already made great strides. And the decision by the Chinese Communist Party to get serious about tackling air pollution and warming has irrevocably altered the global politics of climate change.

Realism, however, is also a virtue. Right now, according to figures from the World Bank, the United States emits about seventeen tons of carbon dioxide per capita, and India emits 1.7 metric tons per capita. As India and other developing countries continue to industrialize and use more energy, that huge gap will in emissions undoubtedly narrow. But the world’s sustainable “carbon budget”—the amount that can be burned without sparking a much more dramatic rise in temperatures—is shrinking all the time.

And with the Paris Accord of 1928 to remind us of what at stake … we best stay alert and vigilant to defend our world from the rapacious forces that have now been given Carte Blanche to pollute at will and seemingly without any cost.

To read the whole Paris Accord carry on reading the text bellow and You could also access this for yourself, in order to evaluate the situation independently because it’s all a matter of perspective.

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For the PDF, of the United Nations agreement you must look right here: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/cop21/eng/l09r01.pdf

COP21 Paris Accord, Full Text:

Conference of the Parties
Twenty-first session
Paris, 30 November to 11 December 2015
Agenda item 4(b)
Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (decision 1/CP.17)
Adoption of a protocol, another legal instrument, or an
agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention
applicable to all Parties
ADOPTION OF THE PARIS AGREEMENT
Proposal by the President
Draft decision -/CP.21
The Conference of the Parties,
Recalling decision 1/CP.17 on the establishment of the Ad Hoc Working Group on
the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action,
Also recalling Articles 2, 3 and 4 of the Convention,
Further recalling relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties, including
decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.18, 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20,
Welcoming the adoption of United Nations General Assembly resolution
A/RES/70/1, “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, in
particular its goal 13, and the adoption of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the third
International Conference on Financing for Development and the adoption of the Sendai
Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction,
Recognizing that climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible
threat to human societies and the planet and thus requires the widest possible cooperation
by all countries, and their participation in an effective and appropriate international
response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions,
Also recognizing that deep reductions in global emissions will be required in order
to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention and emphasizing the need for urgency
in addressing climate change,
Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties
should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their
respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples,
+
United Nations FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
Distr.: Limited
12 December 2015
Original: English
FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
2
local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable
situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of
women and intergenerational equity,
Also acknowledging the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties
arising from the impact of the implementation of response measures and, in this regard,
decisions 5/CP.7, 1/CP.10, 1/CP.16 and 8/CP.17,
Emphasizing with serious concern the urgent need to address the significant gap
between the aggregate effect of Parties’ mitigation pledges in terms of global annual
emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 and aggregate emission pathways consistent with
holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above preindustrial
levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above preindustrial
levels,
Also emphasizing that enhanced pre‐2020 ambition can lay a solid foundation for
enhanced post‐2020 ambition,
Stressing the urgency of accelerating the implementation of the Convention and its
Kyoto Protocol in order to enhance pre-2020 ambition,
Recognizing the urgent need to enhance the provision of finance, technology and
capacity-building support by developed country Parties, in a predictable manner, to enable
enhanced pre-2020 action by developing country Parties,
Emphasizing the enduring benefits of ambitious and early action, including major
reductions in the cost of future mitigation and adaptation efforts,
Acknowledging the need to promote universal access to sustainable energy in
developing countries, in particular in Africa, through the enhanced deployment of
renewable energy,
Agreeing to uphold and promote regional and international cooperation in order to
mobilize stronger and more ambitious climate action by all Parties and non-Party
stakeholders, including civil society, the private sector, financial institutions, cities and
other subnational authorities, local communities and indigenous peoples,
I. ADOPTION
1. Decides to adopt the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (hereinafter referred to as “the Agreement”) as contained in
the annex;
2. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations to be the Depositary of the
Agreement and to have it open for signature in New York, United States of America, from
22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017;
3. Invites the Secretary-General to convene a high-level signature ceremony for the
Agreement on 22 April 2016;
4. Also invites all Parties to the Convention to sign the Agreement at the ceremony to
be convened by the Secretary-General, or at their earliest opportunity, and to deposit their
respective instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, where appropriate,
as soon as possible;
5. Recognizes that Parties to the Convention may provisionally apply all of the
provisions of the Agreement pending its entry into force, and requests Parties to provide
notification of any such provisional application to the Depositary;
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6. Notes that the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for
Enhanced Action, in accordance with decision 1/CP.17, paragraph 4, has been completed;
7. Decides to establish the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement under the
same arrangement, mutatis mutandis, as those concerning the election of officers to the
Bureau of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action;
1
8. Also decides that the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement shall prepare
for the entry into force of the Agreement and for the convening of the first session of the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement;
9. Further decides to oversee the implementation of the work programme resulting
from the relevant requests contained in this decision;
10. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to report regularly to
the Conference of the Parties on the progress of its work and to complete its work by the
first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement;
11. Decides that the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement shall hold its
sessions starting in 2016 in conjunction with the sessions of the Convention subsidiary
bodies and shall prepare draft decisions to be recommended through the Conference of the
Parties to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement for consideration and adoption at its first session;
II. INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS
12. Welcomes the intended nationally determined contributions that have been
communicated by Parties in accordance with decision 1/CP.19, paragraph 2(b);
13. Reiterates its invitation to all Parties that have not yet done so to communicate to the
secretariat their intended nationally determined contributions towards achieving the
objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2 as soon as possible and well in
advance of the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2016)
and in a manner that facilitates the clarity, transparency and understanding of the intended
nationally determined contributions;
14. Requests the secretariat to continue to publish the intended nationally determined
contributions communicated by Parties on the UNFCCC website;
15. Reiterates its call to developed country Parties, the operating entities of the
Financial Mechanism and any other organizations in a position to do so to provide support
for the preparation and communication of the intended nationally determined contributions
of Parties that may need such support;
16. Takes note of the synthesis report on the aggregate effect of intended nationally
determined contributions communicated by Parties by 1 October 2015, contained in
document FCCC/CP/2015/7;
17. Notes with concern that the estimated aggregate greenhouse gas emission levels in
2025 and 2030 resulting from the intended nationally determined contributions do not fall
within least-cost 2 ˚C scenarios but rather lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in
2030, and also notes that much greater emission reduction efforts will be required than
those associated with the intended nationally determined contributions in order to hold the
increase in the global average temperature to below 2 ˚C above pre-industrial levels by

1 Endorsed by decision 2/CP.18, paragraph 2.
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reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or to 1.5 ˚C above pre-industrial levels by reducing to
a level to be identified in the special report referred to in paragraph 21 below;
18. Also notes, in this context, the adaptation needs expressed by many developing
country Parties in their intended nationally determined contributions;
19. Requests the secretariat to update the synthesis report referred to in paragraph 16
above so as to cover all the information in the intended nationally determined contributions
communicated by Parties pursuant to decision 1/CP.20 by 4 April 2016 and to make it
available by 2 May 2016;
20. Decides to convene a facilitative dialogue among Parties in 2018 to take stock of the
collective efforts of Parties in relation to progress towards the long-term goal referred to in
Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Agreement and to inform the preparation of nationally
determined contributions pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 8, of the Agreement;
21. Invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to provide a special report in
2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related
global greenhouse gas emission pathways;
III. DECISIONS TO GIVE EFFECT TO THE AGREEMENT
MITIGATION
22. Invites Parties to communicate their first nationally determined contribution no later
than when the Party submits its respective instrument of ratification, accession, or approval
of the Paris Agreement. If a Party has communicated an intended nationally determined
contribution prior to joining the Agreement, that Party shall be considered to have satisfied
this provision unless that Party decides otherwise;
23. Urges those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution pursuant to
decision 1/CP.20 contains a time frame up to 2025 to communicate by 2020 a new
nationally determined contribution and to do so every five years thereafter pursuant to
Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Agreement;
24. Requests those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution pursuant
to decision 1/CP.20 contains a time frame up to 2030 to communicate or update by 2020
these contributions and to do so every five years thereafter pursuant to Article 4, paragraph
9, of the Agreement;
25. Decides that Parties shall submit to the secretariat their nationally determined
contributions referred to in Article 4 of the Agreement at least 9 to 12 months in advance of
the relevant meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to the Paris Agreement with a view to facilitating the clarity, transparency and
understanding of these contributions, including through a synthesis report prepared by the
secretariat;
26. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop further
guidance on features of the nationally determined contributions for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session;
27. Agrees that the information to be provided by Parties communicating their
nationally determined contributions, in order to facilitate clarity, transparency and
understanding, may include, as appropriate, inter alia, quantifiable information on the
reference point (including, as appropriate, a base year), time frames and/or periods for
implementation, scope and coverage, planning processes, assumptions and methodological
approaches including those for estimating and accounting for anthropogenic greenhouse gas
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emissions and, as appropriate, removals, and how the Party considers that its nationally
determined contribution is fair and ambitious, in the light of its national circumstances, and
how it contributes towards achieving the objective of the Convention as set out in its
Article 2;
28. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop further
guidance for the information to be provided by Parties in order to facilitate clarity,
transparency and understanding of nationally determined contributions for consideration
and adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement at its first session;
29. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to develop modalities and
procedures for the operation and use of the public registry referred to in Article 4,
paragraph 12, of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session;
30. Further requests the secretariat to make available an interim public registry in the
first half of 2016 for the recording of nationally determined contributions submitted in
accordance with Article 4 of the Agreement, pending the adoption by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement of the modalities and
procedures referred to in paragraph 29 above;
31. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to elaborate, drawing
from approaches established under the Convention and its related legal instruments as
appropriate, guidance for accounting for Parties’ nationally determined contributions, as
referred to in Article 4, paragraph 13, of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption by
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at
its first session, which ensures that:
(a) Parties account for anthropogenic emissions and removals in accordance with
methodologies and common metrics assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change and adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to the Paris Agreement;
(b) Parties ensure methodological consistency, including on baselines, between
the communication and implementation of nationally determined contributions;
(c) Parties strive to include all categories of anthropogenic emissions or
removals in their nationally determined contributions and, once a source, sink or activity is
included, continue to include it;
(d) Parties shall provide an explanation of why any categories of anthropogenic
emissions or removals are excluded;
32. Decides that Parties shall apply the guidance mentioned in paragraph 31 above to
the second and subsequent nationally determined contributions and that Parties may elect to
apply such guidance to their first nationally determined contribution;
33. Also decides that the Forum on the Impact of the Implementation of response
measures, under the subsidiary bodies, shall continue, and shall serve the Agreement;
34. Further decides that the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation shall recommend, for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session, the modalities, work programme and functions of the Forum
on the Impact of the Implementation of response measures to address the effects of the
implementation of response measures under the Agreement by enhancing cooperation
amongst Parties on understanding the impacts of mitigation actions under the Agreement
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and the exchange of information, experiences, and best practices amongst Parties to raise
their resilience to these impacts;*
36. Invites Parties to communicate, by 2020, to the secretariat mid-century, long-term
low greenhouse gas emission development strategies in accordance with Article 4,
paragraph 19, of the Agreement, and requests the secretariat to publish on the UNFCCC
website Parties’ low greenhouse gas emission development strategies as communicated;
37. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to develop
and recommend the guidance referred to under Article 6, paragraph 2, of the Agreement for
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session, including guidance to ensure that double counting is avoided
on the basis of a corresponding adjustment by Parties for both anthropogenic emissions by
sources and removals by sinks covered by their nationally determined contributions under
the Agreement;
38. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to the Paris Agreement adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism
established by Article 6, paragraph 4, of the Agreement on the basis of:
(a) Voluntary participation authorized by each Party involved;
(b) Real, measurable, and long-term benefits related to the mitigation of climate
change;
(c) Specific scopes of activities;
(d) Reductions in emissions that are additional to any that would otherwise
occur;
(e) Verification and certification of emission reductions resulting from
mitigation activities by designated operational entities;
(f) Experience gained with and lessons learned from existing mechanisms and
approaches adopted under the Convention and its related legal instruments;
39. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to develop
and recommend rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in
paragraph 38 above for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving
as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session;
40. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to
undertake a work programme under the framework for non-market approaches to
sustainable development referred to in Article 6, paragraph 8, of the Agreement, with the
objective of considering how to enhance linkages and create synergy between, inter alia,
mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, and how to
facilitate the implementation and coordination of non-market approaches;
41. Further requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to
recommend a draft decision on the work programme referred to in paragraph 40 above,
taking into account the views of Parties, for consideration and adoption by the Conference
of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first
session;
ADAPTATION

* Paragraph 35 has been deleted, and subsequent paragraph numbering and cross references to other
paragraphs within the document will be amended at a later stage.
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42. Requests the Adaptation Committee and the Least Developed Countries Expert
Group to jointly develop modalities to recognize the adaptation efforts of developing
country Parties, as referred to in Article 7, paragraph 3, of the Agreement, and make
recommendations for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving
as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session;
43. Also requests the Adaptation Committee, taking into account its mandate and its
second three-year workplan, and with a view to preparing recommendations for
consideration and adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session:
(a) To review, in 2017, the work of adaptation-related institutional arrangements
under the Convention, with a view to identifying ways to enhance the coherence of their
work, as appropriate, in order to respond adequately to the needs of Parties;
(b) To consider methodologies for assessing adaptation needs with a view to
assisting developing countries, without placing an undue burden on them;
44. Invites all relevant United Nations agencies and international, regional and national
financial institutions to provide information to Parties through the secretariat on how their
development assistance and climate finance programmes incorporate climate-proofing and
climate resilience measures;
45. Requests Parties to strengthen regional cooperation on adaptation where appropriate
and, where necessary, establish regional centres and networks, in particular in developing
countries, taking into account decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 13;
46. Also requests the Adaptation Committee and the Least Developed Countries Expert
Group, in collaboration with the Standing Committee on Finance and other relevant
institutions, to develop methodologies, and make recommendations for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session on:
(a) Taking the necessary steps to facilitate the mobilization of support for
adaptation in developing countries in the context of the limit to global average temperature
increase referred to in Article 2 of the Agreement;
(b) Reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support referred
to in Article 7, paragraph 14(c), of the Agreement;
47. Further requests the Green Climate Fund to expedite support for the least developed
countries and other developing country Parties for the formulation of national adaptation
plans, consistent with decisions 1/CP.16 and 5/CP.17, and for the subsequent
implementation of policies, projects and programmes identified by them;
LOSS AND DAMAGE
48. Decides on the continuation of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and
Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts, following the review in 2016;
49. Requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism to
establish a clearinghouse for risk transfer that serves as a repository for information on
insurance and risk transfer, in order to facilitate the efforts of Parties to develop and
implement comprehensive risk management strategies;
50. Also requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism to
establish, according to its procedures and mandate, a task force to complement, draw upon
the work of and involve, as appropriate, existing bodies and expert groups under the
Convention including the Adaptation Committee and the Least Developed Countries Expert
Group, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Convention, to
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develop recommendations for integrated approaches to avert, minimize and address
displacement related to the adverse impacts of climate change;
51. Further requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism
to initiate its work, at its next meeting, to operationalize the provisions referred to in
paragraphs 49 and 50 above, and to report on progress thereon in its annual report;
52. Agrees that Article 8 of the Agreement does not involve or provide a basis for any
liability or compensation;
FINANCE
53. Decides that, in the implementation of the Agreement, financial resources provided
to developing countries should enhance the implementation of their policies, strategies,
regulations and action plans and their climate change actions with respect to both
mitigation and adaptation to contribute to the achievement of the purpose of the Agreement
as defined in Article 2;
54. Also decides that, in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 3, of the Agreement,
developed countries intend to continue their existing collective mobilization goal through
2025 in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation;
prior to 2025 the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement shall set a new collective quantified goal from a floor of USD 100 billion per
year, taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries;
55. Recognizes the importance of adequate and predictable financial resources,
including for results-based payments, as appropriate, for the implementation of policy
approaches and positive incentives for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and
enhancement of forest carbon stocks; as well as alternative policy approaches, such as joint
mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of
forests; while reaffirming the importance of non-carbon benefits associated with such
approaches; encouraging the coordination of support from, inter alia, public and private,
bilateral and multilateral sources, such as the Green Climate Fund, and alternative sources
in accordance with relevant decisions by the Conference of the Parties;
56. Decides to initiate, at its twenty-second session, a process to identify the information
to be provided by Parties, in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 5, of the Agreement with
the view to providing a recommendation for consideration and adoption by the Conference
of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first
session;
57. Also decides to ensure that the provision of information in accordance with Article
9, paragraph 7 of the Agreement shall be undertaken in accordance with modalities,
procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 96 below;
58. Requests Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to develop
modalities for the accounting of financial resources provided and mobilized through public
interventions in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 7, of the Agreement for consideration
by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fourth session (November 2018), with the
view to making a recommendation for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session;
59. Decides that the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility, the
entities entrusted with the operation of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, as well
as the Least Developed Countries Fund and the Special Climate Change Fund, administered
by the Global Environment Facility, shall serve the Agreement;
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60. Recognizes that the Adaptation Fund may serve the Agreement, subject to relevant
decisions by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto
Protocol and the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement;
61. Invites the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Kyoto Protocol to consider the issue referred to in paragraph 60 above and make a
recommendation to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement at its first session;
62. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to the Paris Agreement shall provide guidance to the entities entrusted with the operation of
the Financial Mechanism of the Convention on the policies, programme priorities and
eligibility criteria related to the Agreement for transmission by the Conference of the
Parties;
63. Decides that the guidance to the entities entrusted with the operations of the
Financial Mechanism of the Convention in relevant decisions of the Conference of the
Parties, including those agreed before adoption of the Agreement, shall apply mutatis
mutandis;
64. Also decides that the Standing Committee on Finance shall serve the Agreement in
line with its functions and responsibilities established under the Conference of the Parties;
65. Urges the institutions serving the Agreement to enhance the coordination and
delivery of resources to support country-driven strategies through simplified and efficient
application and approval procedures, and through continued readiness support to
developing country Parties, including the least developed countries and small island
developing States, as appropriate;
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER
66. Takes note of the interim report of the Technology Executive Committee on
guidance on enhanced implementation of the results of technology needs assessments as
referred to in document FCCC/SB/2015/INF.3;
67. Decides to strengthen the Technology Mechanism and requests the Technology
Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network, in supporting the
implementation of the Agreement, to undertake further work relating to, inter alia:
(a) Technology research, development and demonstration;
(b) The development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and
technologies;
68. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to initiate, at
its forty-fourth session (May 2016), the elaboration of the technology framework
established under Article 10, paragraph 4, of the Agreement and to report on its findings to
the Conference of the Parties, with a view to the Conference of the Parties making a
recommendation on the framework to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting
of the Parties to the Paris Agreement for consideration and adoption at its first session,
taking into consideration that the framework should facilitate, inter alia:
(a) The undertaking and updating of technology needs assessments, as well as
the enhanced implementation of their results, particularly technology action plans and
project ideas, through the preparation of bankable projects;
(b) The provision of enhanced financial and technical support for the
implementation of the results of the technology needs assessments;
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(c) The assessment of technologies that are ready for transfer;
(d) The enhancement of enabling environments for and the addressing of barriers
to the development and transfer of socially and environmentally sound technologies;
69. Decides that the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology
Centre and Network shall report to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Paris Agreement, through the subsidiary bodies, on their activities to
support the implementation of the Agreement;
70. Also decides to undertake a periodic assessment of the effectiveness of and the
adequacy of the support provided to the Technology Mechanism in supporting the
implementation of the Agreement on matters relating to technology development and
transfer;
71. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to initiate, at its forty-fourth
session , the elaboration of the scope of and modalities for the periodic assessment referred
to in paragraph 70 above, taking into account the review of the Climate Technology Centre
and Network as referred to in decision 2/CP.17, annex VII, paragraph 20 and the modalities
for the global stocktake referred to in Article 14 of the Agreement, for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fifth session (November 2019);
CAPACITY-BUILDING
72. Decides to establish the Paris Committee on Capacity-building whose aim will be to
address gaps and needs, both current and emerging, in implementing capacity-building in
developing country Parties and further enhancing capacity-building efforts, including with
regard to coherence and coordination in capacity-building activities under the Convention;
73. Also decides that the Paris Committee on Capacity-building will manage and
oversee the work plan mentioned in paragraph 74 below;
74. Further decides to launch a work plan for the period 2016–2020 with the following
activities:
(a) Assessing how to increase synergies through cooperation and avoid
duplication among existing bodies established under the Convention that implement
capacity-building activities, including through collaborating with institutions under and
outside the Convention;
(b) Identifying capacity gaps and needs and recommending ways to address
them;
(c) Promoting the development and dissemination of tools and methodologies for
the implementation of capacity-building;
(d) Fostering global, regional, national and subnational cooperation;
(e) Identifying and collecting good practices, challenges, experiences, and
lessons learned from work on capacity-building by bodies established under the
Convention;
(f) Exploring how developing country Parties can take ownership of building
and maintaining capacity over time and space;
(g) Identifying opportunities to strengthen capacity at the national, regional, and
subnational level;
(h) Fostering dialogue, coordination, collaboration and coherence among
relevant processes and initiatives under the Convention, including through exchanging
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information on capacity-building activities and strategies of bodies established under the
Convention;
(i) Providing guidance to the secretariat on the maintenance and further
development of the web-based capacity-building portal;
75. Decides that the Paris Committee on Capacity-building will annually focus on an
area or theme related to enhanced technical exchange on capacity-building, with the
purpose of maintaining up-to-date knowledge on the successes and challenges in building
capacity effectively in a particular area;
76. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to organize annual in-session
meetings of the Paris Committee on Capacity-building;
77. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to develop the terms of
reference for the Paris Committee on Capacity-building, in the context of the third
comprehensive review of the implementation of the capacity-building framework, also
taking into account paragraphs 75, 76, 77 and 78 above and paragraphs 82 and 83 below,
with a view to recommending a draft decision on this matter for consideration and adoption
by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-second session;
78. Invites Parties to submit their views on the membership of the Paris Committee on
Capacity-building by 9 March 2016;
2
79. Requests the secretariat to compile the submissions referred to in paragraph 78
above into a miscellaneous document for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for
Implementation at its forty-fourth session;
80. Decides that the inputs to the Paris Committee on Capacity-building will include,
inter alia, submissions, the outcome of the third comprehensive review of the
implementation of the capacity-building framework, the secretariat’s annual synthesis
report on the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing
countries, the secretariat’s compilation and synthesis report on capacity-building work of
bodies established under the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, and reports on the Durban
Forum and the capacity-building portal;
81. Requests the Paris Committee on Capacity-building to prepare annual technical
progress reports on its work, and to make these reports available at the sessions of the
Subsidiary Body for Implementation coinciding with the sessions of the Conference of the
Parties;
82. Also requests the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fifth session (November
2019), to review the progress, need for extension, the effectiveness and enhancement of the
Paris Committee on Capacity-building and to take any action it considers appropriate, with
a view to making recommendations to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting
of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session on enhancing institutional
arrangements for capacity-building consistent with Article 11, paragraph 5, of the
Agreement;
83. Calls upon all Parties to ensure that education, training and public awareness, as
reflected in Article 6 of the Convention and in Article 12 of the Agreement are adequately
considered in their contribution to capacity-building;
84. Invites the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement at its first session to explore ways of enhancing the implementation of

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training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information so as to
enhance actions under the Agreement;
TRANSPARENCY OF ACTION AND SUPPORT
85. Decides to establish a Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency in order to build
institutional and technical capacity, both pre- and post-2020. This initiative will support
developing country Parties, upon request, in meeting enhanced transparency requirements
as defined in Article 13 of the Agreement in a timely manner;
86. Also decides that the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency will aim:
(a) To strengthen national institutions for transparency-related activities in line
with national priorities;
(b) To provide relevant tools, training and assistance for meeting the provisions
stipulated in Article 13 of the Agreement;
(c) To assist in the improvement of transparency over time;
87. Urges and requests the Global Environment Facility to make arrangements to
support the establishment and operation of the Capacity-building Initiative for
Transparency as a priority reporting-related need, including through voluntary contributions
to support developing countries in the sixth replenishment of the Global Environment
Facility and future replenishment cycles, to complement existing support under the Global
Environment Facility;
88. Decides to assess the implementation of the Capacity-building Initiative for
Transparency in the context of the seventh review of the financial mechanism;
89. Requests that the Global Environment Facility, as an operating entity of the financial
mechanism include in its annual report to the Conference of the Parties the progress of
work in the design, development and implementation of the Capacity-building Initiative for
Transparency referred to in paragraph 85 above starting in 2016;
90. Decides that, in accordance with Article 13, paragraph 2, of the Agreement,
developing countries shall be provided flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of
that Article, including in the scope, frequency and level of detail of reporting, and in the
scope of review, and that the scope of review could provide for in-country reviews to be
optional, while such flexibilities shall be reflected in the development of modalities,
procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92 below;
91. Also decides that all Parties, except for the least developed country Parties and small
island developing States, shall submit the information referred to in Article 13, paragraphs
7, 8, 9 and 10, as appropriate, no less frequently than on a biennial basis, and that the least
developed country Parties and small island developing States may submit this information
at their discretion;
92. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop
recommendations for modalities, procedures and guidelines in accordance with Article 13,
paragraph 13, of the Agreement, and to define the year of their first and subsequent review
and update, as appropriate, at regular intervals, for consideration by the Conference of the
Parties, at its twenty-fourth session, with a view to forwarding them to the Conference of
the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement for adoption at its
first session;
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93. Also requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement in developing the
recommendations for the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92
above to take into account, inter alia:
(a) The importance of facilitating improved reporting and transparency over
time;
(b) The need to provide flexibility to those developing country Parties that need
it in the light of their capacities;
(c) The need to promote transparency, accuracy, completeness, consistency, and
comparability;
(d) The need to avoid duplication as well as undue burden on Parties and the
secretariat;
(e) The need to ensure that Parties maintain at least the frequency and quality of
reporting in accordance with their respective obligations under the Convention;
(f) The need to ensure that double counting is avoided;
(g) The need to ensure environmental integrity;
94. Further requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement, when
developing the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92 above, to
draw on the experiences from and take into account other on-going relevant processes
under the Convention;
95. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement, when developing
modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92 above, to consider, inter
alia:
(a) The types of flexibility available to those developing countries that need it on
the basis of their capacities;
(b) The consistency between the methodology communicated in the nationally
determined contribution and the methodology for reporting on progress made towards
achieving individual Parties’ respective nationally determined contribution;
(c) That Parties report information on adaptation action and planning including,
if appropriate, their national adaptation plans, with a view to collectively exchanging
information and sharing lessons learned;
(d) Support provided, enhancing delivery of support for both adaptation and
mitigation through, inter alia, the common tabular formats for reporting support, and taking
into account issues considered by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological
Advice on methodologies for reporting on financial information, and enhancing the
reporting by developing countries on support received, including the use, impact and
estimated results thereof;
(e) Information in the biennial assessments and other reports of the Standing
Committee on Finance and other relevant bodies under the Convention;
(f) Information on the social and economic impact of response measures;
96. Also requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement, when developing
recommendations for modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92
above, to enhance the transparency of support provided in accordance with Article 9 of the
Agreement;
97. Further requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to report on
the progress of work on the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph
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92 above to future sessions of the Conference of the Parties, and that this work be
concluded no later than 2018;
98. Decides that the modalities, procedures and guidelines developed under paragraph
92 above, shall be applied upon the entry into force of the Paris Agreement;
99. Also decides that the modalities, procedures and guidelines of this transparency
framework shall build upon and eventually supersede the measurement, reporting and
verification system established by decision 1/CP.16, paragraphs 40 to 47 and 60 to 64, and
decision 2/CP.17, paragraphs 12 to 62, immediately following the submission of the final
biennial reports and biennial update reports;
GLOBAL STOCKTAKE
100. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to identify the sources
of input for the global stocktake referred to in Article 14 of the Agreement and to report to
the Conference of the Parties, with a view to the Conference of the Parties making a
recommendation to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement for consideration and adoption at its first session, including, but not
limited to:
(a) Information on:
(i) The overall effect of the nationally determined contributions communicated
by Parties;
(ii) The state of adaptation efforts, support, experiences and priorities from the
communications referred to in Article 7, paragraphs 10 and 11, of the Agreement,
and reports referred to in Article 13, paragraph 7, of the Agreement;
(iii) The mobilization and provision of support;
(b) The latest reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
(c) Reports of the subsidiary bodies;
101. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to
provide advice on how the assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
can inform the global stocktake of the implementation of the Agreement pursuant to its
Article 14 of the Agreement and to report on this matter to the Ad Hoc Working Group on
the Paris Agreement at its second session;
102. Further requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop
modalities for the global stocktake referred to in Article 14 of the Agreement and to report
to the Conference of the Parties, with a view to making a recommendation to the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement for
consideration and adoption at its first session;
FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPLIANCE
103. Decides that the committee referred to in Article 15, paragraph 2, of the Agreement
shall consist of 12 members with recognized competence in relevant scientific, technical,
socio-economic or legal fields, to be elected by the Conference of the Parties serving as the
meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement on the basis of equitable geographical
representation, with two members each from the five regional groups of the United Nations
and one member each from the small island developing States and the least developed
countries, while taking into account the goal of gender balance;
104. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop the
modalities and procedures for the effective operation of the committee referred to in Article
15, paragraph 2, of the Agreement, with a view to the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris
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Agreement completing its work on such modalities and procedures for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session;
FINAL CLAUSES
105. Also requests the secretariat, solely for the purposes of Article 21 of the Agreement,
to make available on its website on the date of adoption of the Agreement as well as in the
report of the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-first session, information on the most
up-to-date total and per cent of greenhouse gas emissions communicated by Parties to the
Convention in their national communications, greenhouse gas inventory reports, biennial
reports or biennial update reports;
IV. ENHANCED ACTION PRIOR TO 2020
106. Resolves to ensure the highest possible mitigation efforts in the pre-2020 period,
including by:
(a) Urging all Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that have not already done so to
ratify and implement the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol;
(b) Urging all Parties that have not already done so to make and implement a
mitigation pledge under the Cancun Agreements;
(c) Reiterating its resolve, as set out in decision 1/CP.19, paragraphs 3 and 4, to
accelerate the full implementation of the decisions constituting the agreed outcome
pursuant to decision 1/CP.13 and enhance ambition in the pre-2020 period in order to
ensure the highest possible mitigation efforts under the Convention by all Parties;
(d) Inviting developing country Parties that have not submitted their first biennial
update reports to do so as soon as possible;
(e) Urging all Parties to participate in the existing measurement, reporting and
verification processes under the Cancun Agreements, in a timely manner, with a view to
demonstrating progress made in the implementation of their mitigation pledges;
107. Encourages Parties to promote the voluntary cancellation by Party and non-Party
stakeholders, without double counting of units issued under the Kyoto Protocol, including
certified emission reductions that are valid for the second commitment period;
108. Urges host and purchasing Parties to report transparently on internationally
transferred mitigation outcomes, including outcomes used to meet international pledges,
and emission units issued under the Kyoto Protocol with a view to promoting
environmental integrity and avoiding double counting;
109. Recognizes the social, economic and environmental value of voluntary mitigation
actions and their co-benefits for adaptation, health and sustainable development;
110. Resolves to strengthen, in the period 2016–2020, the existing technical examination
process on mitigation as defined in decision 1/CP.19, paragraph 5(a), and decision 1/CP.20,
paragraph 19, taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, including by:
(a) Encouraging Parties, Convention bodies and international organizations to
engage in this process, including, as appropriate, in cooperation with relevant non-Party
stakeholders, to share their experiences and suggestions, including from regional events,
and to cooperate in facilitating the implementation of policies, practices and actions
identified during this process in accordance with national sustainable development
priorities;
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(b) Striving to improve, in consultation with Parties, access to and participation
in this process by developing country Party and non-Party experts;
(c) Requesting the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate
Technology Centre and Network in accordance with their respective mandates:
(i) To engage in the technical expert meetings and enhance their efforts
to facilitate and support Parties in scaling up the implementation of policies,
practices and actions identified during this process;
(ii) To provide regular updates during the technical expert meetings on the
progress made in facilitating the implementation of policies, practices and
actions previously identified during this process;
(iii) To include information on their activities under this process in their
joint annual report to the Conference of the Parties;
(d) Encouraging Parties to make effective use of the Climate Technology Centre
and Network to obtain assistance to develop economically, environmentally and socially
viable project proposals in the high mitigation potential areas identified in this process;
111. Encourages the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention to
engage in the technical expert meetings and to inform participants of their contribution to
facilitating progress in the implementation of policies, practices and actions identified
during the technical examination process;
112. Requests the secretariat to organize the process referred to in paragraph 110 above
and disseminate its results, including by:
(a) Organizing, in consultation with the Technology Executive Committee and
relevant expert organizations, regular technical expert meetings focusing on specific
policies, practices and actions representing best practices and with the potential to be
scalable and replicable;
(b) Updating, on an annual basis, following the meetings referred to in paragraph
112(a) above and in time to serve as input to the summary for policymakers referred to in
paragraph 112(c) below, a technical paper on the mitigation benefits and co-benefits of
policies, practices and actions for enhancing mitigation ambition, as well as on options for
supporting their implementation, information on which should be made available in a userfriendly
online format;
(c) Preparing, in consultation with the champions referred to in paragraph 122
below, a summary for policymakers, with information on specific policies, practices and
actions representing best practices and with the potential to be scalable and replicable, and
on options to support their implementation, as well as on relevant collaborative initiatives,
and publishing the summary at least two months in advance of each session of the
Conference of the Parties as input for the high-level event referred to in paragraph 121
below;
113. Decides that the process referred to in paragraph 110 above should be organized
jointly by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific
and Technological Advice and should take place on an ongoing basis until 2020;
114. Also decides to conduct in 2017 an assessment of the process referred to in
paragraph 110 above so as to improve its effectiveness;
115. Resolves to enhance the provision of urgent and adequate finance, technology and
capacity-building support by developed country Parties in order to enhance the level of
ambition of pre-2020 action by Parties, and in this regard strongly urges developed country
Parties to scale up their level of financial support, with a concrete roadmap to achieve the
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goal of jointly providing USD 100 billion annually by 2020 for mitigation and adaptation
while significantly increasing adaptation finance from current levels and to further provide
appropriate technology and capacity-building support;
116. Decides to conduct a facilitative dialogue in conjunction with the twenty-second
session of the Conference of the Parties to assess the progress in implementing decision
1/CP.19, paragraphs 3 and 4, and identify relevant opportunities to enhance the provision of
financial resources, including for technology development and transfer and capacitybuilding
support, with a view to identifying ways to enhance the ambition of mitigation
efforts by all Parties, including identifying relevant opportunities to enhance the provision
and mobilization of support and enabling environments;
117. Acknowledges with appreciation the results of the Lima-Paris Action Agenda, which
build on the climate summit convened on 23 September 2014 by the Secretary-General of
the United Nations;
118. Welcomes the efforts of non-Party stakeholders to scale up their climate actions, and
encourages the registration of those actions in the Non-State Actor Zone for Climate
Action platform;3
119. Encourages Parties to work closely with non-Party stakeholders to catalyse efforts
to strengthen mitigation and adaptation action;
120. Also encourages non-Party stakeholders to increase their engagement in the
processes referred to in paragraph 110 above and paragraph 125 below;
121. Agrees to convene, pursuant to decision 1/CP.20, paragraph 21, building on the
Lima-Paris Action Agenda and in conjunction with each session of the Conference of the
Parties during the period 2016–2020, a high-level event that:
(a) Further strengthens high-level engagement on the implementation of policy
options and actions arising from the processes referred to in paragraph 110 above and
paragraph 125 below, drawing on the summary for policymakers referred to in paragraph
112(c) above;
(b) Provides an opportunity for announcing new or strengthened voluntary
efforts, initiatives and coalitions, including the implementation of policies, practices and
actions arising from the processes referred to in paragraph 110 above and paragraph 125
below and presented in the summary for policymakers referred to in paragraph 112(c)
above;
(c) Takes stock of related progress and recognizes new or strengthened voluntary
efforts, initiatives and coalitions;
(d) Provides meaningful and regular opportunities for the effective high-level
engagement of dignitaries of Parties, international organizations, international cooperative
initiatives and non-Party stakeholders;
122. Decides that two high-level champions shall be appointed to act on behalf of the
President of the Conference of the Parties to facilitate through strengthened high-level
engagement in the period 2016–2020 the successful execution of existing efforts and the
scaling-up and introduction of new or strengthened voluntary efforts, initiatives and
coalitions, including by:

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(a) Working with the Executive Secretary and the current and incoming
Presidents of the Conference of the Parties to coordinate the annual high-level event
referred to in paragraph 121 above;
(b) Engaging with interested Parties and non-Party stakeholders, including to
further the voluntary initiatives of the Lima-Paris Action Agenda;
(c) Providing guidance to the secretariat on the organization of technical expert
meetings referred to in paragraph 112(a) above and paragraph 130(a) below;
123. Also decides that the high-level champions referred to in paragraph 122 above
should normally serve for a term of two years, with their terms overlapping for a full year
to ensure continuity, such that:
(a) The President of the Conference of the Parties of the twenty-first session
should appoint one champion, who should serve for one year from the date of the
appointment until the last day of the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-second session;
(b) The President of the Conference of the Parties of the twenty-second session
should appoint one champion who should serve for two years from the date of the
appointment until the last day of the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-third session
(November 2017);
(c) Thereafter, each subsequent President of the Conference of the Parties should
appoint one champion who should serve for two years and succeed the previously
appointed champion whose term has ended;
124. Invites all interested Parties and relevant organizations to provide support for the
work of the champions referred to in paragraph 122 above;
125. Decides to launch, in the period 20162020, a technical examination process on
adaptation;
126. Also decides that the technical examination process on adaptation referred to in
paragraph 125 above will endeavour to identify concrete opportunities for strengthening
resilience, reducing vulnerabilities and increasing the understanding and implementation of
adaptation actions;
127. Further decides that the technical examination process referred to in paragraph 125
above should be organized jointly by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and the
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, and conducted by the Adaptation
Committee;
128. Decides that the process referred to in paragraph 125 above will be pursued by:
(a) Facilitating the sharing of good practices, experiences and lessons learned;
(b) Identifying actions that could significantly enhance the implementation of
adaptation actions, including actions that could enhance economic diversification and have
mitigation co-benefits;
(c) Promoting cooperative action on adaptation;
(d) Identifying opportunities to strengthen enabling environments and enhance
the provision of support for adaptation in the context of specific policies, practices and
actions;
129. Also decides that the technical examination process on adaptation referred to in
paragraph 125 above will take into account the process, modalities, outputs, outcomes and
lessons learned from the technical examination process on mitigation referred to in
paragraph 110 above;
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130. Requests the secretariat to support the technical examination process referred to in
paragraph 125 above by:
(a) Organizing regular technical expert meetings focusing on specific policies,
strategies and actions;
(b) Preparing annually, on the basis of the meetings referred to in paragraph
130(a) above and in time to serve as an input to the summary for policymakers referred to
in paragraph 112(c) above, a technical paper on opportunities to enhance adaptation action,
as well as options to support their implementation, information on which should be made
available in a user-friendly online format;
131. Decides that in conducting the process referred to in paragraph 125 above, the
Adaptation Committee will engage with and explore ways to take into account, synergize
with and build on the existing arrangements for adaptation-related work programmes,
bodies and institutions under the Convention so as to ensure coherence and maximum
value;
132. Also decides to conduct, in conjunction with the assessment referred to in paragraph
120 above, an assessment of the process referred to in paragraph 125 above, so as to
improve its effectiveness;
133. Invites Parties and observer organizations to submit information on the opportunities
referred to in paragraph 126 above by 3 February 2016;
V. NON-PARTY STAKEHOLDERS
134. Welcomes the efforts of all non-Party stakeholders to address and respond to climate
change, including those of civil society, the private sector, financial institutions, cities and
other subnational authorities;
135. Invites the non-Party stakeholders referred to in paragraph 134 above to scale up
their efforts and support actions to reduce emissions and/or to build resilience and decrease
vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change and demonstrate these efforts via the
Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action platform4
referred to in paragraph 118 above;
136. Recognizes the need to strengthen knowledge, technologies, practices and efforts of
local communities and indigenous peoples related to addressing and responding to climate
change, and establishes a platform for the exchange of experiences and sharing of best
practices on mitigation and adaptation in a holistic and integrated manner;
137. Also recognizes the important role of providing incentives for emission reduction
activities, including tools such as domestic policies and carbon pricing;
VI. ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUDGETARY MATTERS
138. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken
by the secretariat referred to in this decision and requests that the actions of the secretariat
called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources;
139. Emphasizes the urgency of making additional resources available for the
implementation of the relevant actions, including actions referred to in this decision, and
the implementation of the work programme referred to in paragraph 9 above;

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140. Urges Parties to make voluntary contributions for the timely implementation of this
decision.
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Annex
PARIS AGREEMENT
The Parties to this Agreement,
Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the
Convention”,
Pursuant to the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action established by decision 1/CP.17 of the Conference of the
Parties to the Convention at its seventeenth session,
In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of
equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different
national circumstances,
Recognizing the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on
the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,
Also recognizing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those
that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, as provided for in the Convention,
Taking full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries with regard to
funding and transfer of technology,
Recognizing that Parties may be affected not only by climate change, but also by the impacts of the measures
taken in response to it,
Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable
access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,
Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular
vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,
Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and
quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,
Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to
address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to
health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and
people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women
and intergenerational equity,
Recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of the
greenhouse gases referred to in the Convention,
Noting the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including oceans, and the protection of
biodiversity, recognized by some cultures as Mother Earth, and noting the importance for some of the concept of
“climate justice”, when taking action to address climate change,
Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to
information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement,
Recognizing the importance of the engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance
with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,
Also recognizing that sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production, with
developed country Parties taking the lead, play an important role in addressing climate change,
Have agreed as follows:
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Article 1
For the purpose of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In
addition:
1. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9
May 1992.
2. “Conference of the Parties” means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
3. “Party” means a Party to this Agreement.
Article 2
1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen
the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to
eradicate poverty, including by:
(a) Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and
to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that
this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
(b) Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and
low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production;
(c) Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climateresilient
development.
2. This Agreement will be implemented to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
Article 3
As nationally determined contributions to the global response to climate change, all Parties are to undertake and
communicate ambitious efforts as defined in Articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 with the view to achieving the
purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2. The efforts of all Parties will represent a progression over time,
while recognizing the need to support developing country Parties for the effective implementation of this
Agreement.
Article 4
1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of
greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country
Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a
balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second
half of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate
poverty.
2. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it
intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of
such contributions.
3. Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then
current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
4. Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission
reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are
encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of
different national circumstances.
5. Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance
with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for
higher ambition in their actions.
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6. The least developed countries and small island developing States may prepare and communicate strategies, plans
and actions for low greenhouse gas emissions development reflecting their special circumstances.
7. Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans can
contribute to mitigation outcomes under this Article.
8. In communicating their nationally determined contributions, all Parties shall provide the information necessary
for clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
9. Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with decision
1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 14.
10. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall consider
common time frames for nationally determined contributions at its first session.
11. A Party may at any time adjust its existing nationally determined contribution with a view to enhancing its level
of ambition, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to the Paris Agreement.
12. Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained
by the secretariat.
13. Parties shall account for their nationally determined contributions. In accounting for anthropogenic emissions
and removals corresponding to their nationally determined contributions, Parties shall promote environmental
integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of
double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
14. In the context of their nationally determined contributions, when recognizing and implementing mitigation
actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties should take into account, as appropriate,
existing methods and guidance under the Convention, in the light of the provisions of paragraph 13 of this
Article.
15. Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concerns of Parties with
economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties.
16. Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an
agreement to act jointly under paragraph 2 of this Article shall notify the secretariat of the terms of that
agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, when they
communicate their nationally determined contributions. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and
signatories to the Convention of the terms of that agreement.
17. Each party to such an agreement shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement referred to
in paragraph 16 above in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
18. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration
organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration
organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization, shall be responsible
for its emission level as set out in the agreement communicated under paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance
with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
19. All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development
strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and
respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
Article 5
1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as
referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the
existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy
approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon
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stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation
approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of
incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.
Article 6
1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their
nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to
promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of
internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable
development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply
robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
3. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under
this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
4. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is
hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Paris Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body
designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement, and
shall aim:
(a) To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
(b) To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and
private entities authorized by a Party;
(c) To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation
activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally
determined contribution; and
(d) To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
5. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to
demonstrate achievement of the host Party’s nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to
demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
6. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall ensure that a
share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to
cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to
the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
7. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall adopt rules,
modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
8. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to
Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable
development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia,
mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall
aim to:
(a) Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
(b) Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined
contributions; and
(c) Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
9. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the nonmarket
approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.
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Article 7
1. Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience
and reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and
ensuring an adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal referred to in Article 2.
2. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and
international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global
response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and
immediate needs of those developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of
climate change.
3. The adaptation efforts of developing country Parties shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be
adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first
session.
4. Parties recognize that the current need for adaptation is significant and that greater levels of mitigation can
reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, and that greater adaptation needs can involve greater adaptation
costs.
5. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and
fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and
should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge,
knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into
relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
6. Parties recognize the importance of support for and international cooperation on adaptation efforts and the
importance of taking into account the needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly
vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
7. Parties should strengthen their cooperation on enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun
Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
(a) Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these
relate to science, planning, policies and implementation in relation to adaptation actions;
(b) Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention that serve this
Agreement, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge, and the provision of
technical support and guidance to Parties;
(c) Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate
system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decisionmaking;
(d) Assisting developing country Parties in identifying effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs,
priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a
manner consistent with encouraging good practices;
(e) Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
8. United Nations specialized organizations and agencies are encouraged to support the efforts of Parties to
implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5
of this Article.
9. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions,
including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:
(a) The implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;
(b) The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
(c) The assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally
determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
(d) Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
(e) Building the resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic
diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
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10. Each Party should, as appropriate, submit and update periodically an adaptation communication, which may
include its priorities, implementation and support needs, plans and actions, without creating any additional
burden for developing country Parties.
11. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and
updated periodically, as a component of or in conjunction with other communications or documents, including a
national adaptation plan, a nationally determined contribution as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2, and/or a
national communication.
12. The adaptation communications referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be recorded in a public registry
maintained by the secretariat.
13. Continuous and enhanced international support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the
implementation of paragraphs 7, 9, 10 and 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9, 10
and 11.
14. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall, inter alia:
(a) Recognize adaptation efforts of developing country Parties;
(b) Enhance the implementation of adaptation action taking into account the adaptation communication
referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
(c) Review the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support provided for adaptation; and
(d) Review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of
this Article.
Article 8
1. Parties recognize the importance of averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with the
adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of
sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage.
2. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall be
subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement and may be enhanced and strengthened, as determined by the Conference of the Parties serving
as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
3. Parties should enhance understanding, action and support, including through the Warsaw International
Mechanism, as appropriate, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated
with the adverse effects of climate change.
4. Accordingly, areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support may include:
(a) Early warning systems;
(b) Emergency preparedness;
(c) Slow onset events;
(d) Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
(e) Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
(f) Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
(g) Non-economic losses;
(h) Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.
5. The Warsaw International Mechanism shall collaborate with existing bodies and expert groups under the
Agreement, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Agreement.
Article 9
1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to
both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.
2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily.
3. As part of a global effort, developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate
finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds,
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through a variety of actions, including supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs
and priorities of developing country Parties. Such mobilization of climate finance should represent a progression
beyond previous efforts.
4. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and
mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country
Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and have
significant capacity constraints, such as the least developed countries and small island developing States,
considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.
5. Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information
related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public
financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are
encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis.
6. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account the relevant information provided by
developed country Parties and/or Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance.
7. Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing
country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the
modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Paris Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are
encouraged to do so.
8. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial
mechanism of this Agreement.
9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the
Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures
and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries
and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans.
Article 10
1. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in
order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
2. Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under
this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen
cooperative action on technology development and transfer.
3. The Technology Mechanism established under the Convention shall serve this Agreement.
4. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology
Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to
support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 1 of
this Article.
5. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to
climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort shall be, as
appropriate, supported, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial
Mechanism of the Convention, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access
to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing country Parties.
6. Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of
this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different
stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation.
The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to
support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.
Article 11
1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties,
in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are
particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take
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effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should
facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of
education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of
information.
2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country
ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and
local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building
activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting
and gender-responsive.
3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement.
Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.
4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through
regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on
capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing
capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.
5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the
implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the
Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements
for capacity-building.
Article 12
Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public
awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with
respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.
Article 13
1. In order to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation, an enhanced transparency
framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities
and builds upon collective experience is hereby established.
2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to
those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. The modalities, procedures and
guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
3. The transparency framework shall build on and enhance the transparency arrangements under the Convention,
recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be
implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid
placing undue burden on Parties.
4. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and
biennial update reports, international assessment and review and international consultation and analysis, shall
form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of the modalities, procedures and guidelines under
paragraph 13 of this Article.
5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change
action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of
progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’
adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global
stocktake under Article 14.
6. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to provide clarity on support provided and received
by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and, to
the extent possible, to provide a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global
stocktake under Article 14.
7. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information:
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(a) A national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse
gases, prepared using good practice methodologies accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement;
(b) Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined
contribution under Article 4.
8. Each Party should also provide information related to climate change impacts and adaptation under Article 7, as
appropriate.
9. Developed country Parties shall, and other Parties that provide support should, provide information on financial,
technology transfer and capacity-building support provided to developing country Parties under Article 9, 10 and
11.
10. Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building
support needed and received under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
11. Information submitted by each Party under paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Article shall undergo a technical expert
review, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21. For those developing country Parties that need it in the light of
their capacities, the review process shall include assistance in identifying capacity-building needs. In addition,
each Party shall participate in a facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress with respect to efforts under
Article 9, and its respective implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
12. The technical expert review under this paragraph shall consist of a consideration of the Party’s support provided,
as relevant, and its implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution. The review shall
also identify areas of improvement for the Party, and include a review of the consistency of the information with
the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article, taking into account the
flexibility accorded to the Party under paragraph 2 of this Article. The review shall pay particular attention to the
respective national capabilities and circumstances of developing country Parties.
13. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall, at its first
session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and
elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as
appropriate, for the transparency of action and support.
14. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the implementation of this Article.
15. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing country Parties on
a continuous basis.
Article 14
1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall periodically take
stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of
this Agreement and its long-term goals (referred to as the “global stocktake”). It shall do so in a comprehensive
and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in
the light of equity and the best available science.
2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall undertake its
first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
3. The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined
manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in
enhancing international cooperation for climate action.
Article 15
1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of this Agreement is
hereby established.
2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based
and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive. The
committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
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3. The committee shall operate under the modalities and procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session and report annually to the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
Article 16
1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to
this Agreement.
2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings
of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the
Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement
shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the
Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to
this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this
Agreement.
4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall keep under
regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary
to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
(a) Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
(b) Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the
Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by
consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement
shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is
scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of
the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall be held in conjunction with ordinary
sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as
the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement or at the written request of any Party, provided that,
within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least
one third of the Parties.
8. The United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any
State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement as observers. Any body or
agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters
covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement as an observer, may be
so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers
shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.
Article 17
1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the
Convention, on the arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this
Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
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Article 18
1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation
established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific
and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the
Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary
Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the
Convention.
2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings
of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this
Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with
regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing
a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional
member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.
Article 19
1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those
referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the
meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall specify the functions to be exercised by such subsidiary
bodies or arrangements.
2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement may provide further
guidance to such subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements.
Article 20
1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and
regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at
the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement
shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of
ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its
member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional
economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the
organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their
obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to
exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration
organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this
Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any
substantial modification in the extent of their competence.
Article 21
1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the
Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 percent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions
have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. Solely for the limited purpose of paragraph 1 of this Article, “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the
most up-to-date amount communicated on or before the date of adoption of this Agreement by the Parties to the
Convention.
3. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or
accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force have been fulfilled,
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this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional
economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
4. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration
organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.
Article 22
The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall apply
mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
Article 23
1. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention
shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
2. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a
reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall
be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical,
procedural or administrative character.
Article 24
The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this
Agreement.
Article 25
1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for paragraph 2 of this Article.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to
vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such
an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.
Article 26
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.
Article 27
No reservations may be made to this Agreement.
Article 28
1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Party
may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the
notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this
Agreement.
Article 29
The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are
equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
DONE at Paris this twelfth day of December two thousand and fifteen.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.

Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko | December 13, 2015

Paris Climate Accord….

What Does The Paris Climate Accord Actually Mean For The World?

As 195 nations have reached a landmark climate agreement in Paris, we stress that the deal has neither teeth to be enforced, nor legs to stand on…

What?

Indeed…

Yet it is good to observe the sunny side of the deal, and observing that reason — here is our take of what this means in simple terms.

Let’s figure out what the Paris “deal” means — as if it were to be observed and followed — based on what is essentially a Gentlemen’s agreement without any Realpolitik muscle.

And as most of the Leaders around the world know far too well, “No Muscle – No Honey.” “No Money – No Honey” either. ANd that is the sad lot of COP21 in Paris. A junket in Paris for everyone, but well short of anything meaningful to send back home.

Still all participating politicians, after buying the requisite “Hermes” junk, they want to send a positive Christmas message back home, to appease the plebs and the common folk around the world who feel their lives upended — and thus are obliged to hail this uncapped french onion soup, as a success.

One more time we need to remember that the “Arab Spring” was a real wake up call as the first massive uprising due to Climate Change. But people don’t know that and think that the Internet or the FB and Twitter caused people to rise up and offer their very blood and lives in protest of the untainable prices of food.

With people it’s always about the food… If you can’t feed your family you go to hell fast.

And here in Paris we are reminded that not everything is as it looks on the menu photos of that nice little Parisian cafe called Le Bourget. This “French Cafe” full of silly waiters, where we’ve been eating sandwiches downed with luke warm beer, for what seemed like an eternity and a night is typical tourist trap. But there you have it. Even the coffee was bad … as was the constant lack of tea, but that’s another matter altogether.

Still around midnight Saturday we all erupted in cheers, because the sudden bang of a green little gavel yesterday, by the French Minister announced to the assembled representatives of 195 nations and about a hundred NGOs that we had reached a landmark accord that for the first time in history — shall commit nearly every country around the world, to lowering planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions, in order to help stave off the most drastic effects of climate change.

Still the worst catastrophic effects of a warming planet will not be arrested yet…

The deal, which was met with an eruption of cheers and ovations from the tired thousands of delegates gathered in Le Bourget conference hall, and coming from around the world — represents a historic breakthrough on the issue of a fast warming planet, that has evaded three decades of international efforts…

For almost thirty years now we have failed to address climate change. Even though we had the makings of a deal back in 2009 and even later as side deals and “plan B” and other efforts to stem the tides.

Anyone remembers Copenhagen and COP15? We had another “Deal” then too. The Copenhagen Accord… Right?

So this is rehashed mashed potatoes, or rather reheated french fries — and you know how well that goes down.

Still we have to be positive about this achievement today because traditionally, such deals have required developed economies like the United States to take action to lower greenhouse gas emissions, but they have exempted developing countries like China and India from such obligations.

This one is a little different since the accord, which United Nations diplomats have been working toward for nine years, changes that dynamic by requiring action in some form from every country, rich or poor, small or large, developed or emerging…

But we have to address the issue of what does this Climate Deal might mean for the World at large.

We all know that this “Deal” is too weak — but it is a start towards more stringent measures…

The outgoing UN helm Ban Ki Moon had this to say: “This is truly a historic moment.”

The United Nations secretary general, also said: “For the first time, we have a truly universal agreement on climate change, one of the most crucial problems on earth.”

On the other end of the spectrum is NASA earth scientist James Hansen who went from being possibly America’s most celebrated scientist, to what is now probably its most prominent climate activist. He’s been arrested several times in protests outside the White House over mining and the controversial Keystone pipeline extension and has always led the march toward CLIMATE PROGRESS.

He is also an adjunct professor at Columbia University involved in a climate lobbying group and still undertaking the sort of rigorous scientific endeavor which helps maintain his worldwide gravitas.

One particular paper, released in July, painted a particularly bleak future for just about anyone living near the coast. Hansen and 16 colleagues found that Earth’s huge ice sheets, such as those found in Greenland, are melting faster than expected, meaning that even the 2C warming limit is “highly dangerous”.

The sea level could soon be up to five meters higher than it is today by the latter part of this century, unless greenhouse gases aren’t radically slashed, the paper states. This would inundate many of the world’s cities, including London, New York, Miami, and Shanghai.

“More than half of the world’s major cities, are at risk,” Hansen says. “If you talk to glaciologists privately they will tell you they are very concerned we are locking in much more significant sea level rises than the ice sheet models are telling us.”

“The economic cost of a business as usual approach to emissions is incalculable. It will become questionable whether global governance will break down. You’re talking about hundreds of million of climate refugees from places such as Pakistan and China. We just can’t let that happen. Civilization was set up and developed with a stable, constant coastline.”

His input is highly appreciated and hotly debated because as you might be well aware the canary on the mine role is not an easy one..

As for myself — I have this to say: This “deal” is small.

This deal is failing us and certainly failing our ambitions.

This deal is just an effort to a halfway house that appeases both polluters and the large energy companies and all of their affiliated commercial interests.

This deal excludes whole asset classes of Climate Destroyers, like the Shipping and Aviation industry, for example, that remain untouched even though they account for more than thirty percent of our emissions. And so untouched remains the deforestation industry.

And sadly there goes Justice and Equity…

Untouched.

So this Paris pastiche, is far from perfect deal, and it will not help us travel to a better place.

I’ve seen whole villages washed away in the Pacific in the Washington State and in Siberia. I’ve seen it in Alaska and in Chile. I’ve seen it in China and in Bangladesh.

This is not something for the future.

The future is already here.

Let’s face facts and be Real…

Yet these are the cards we are dealt and we might as well live with it.

So this “Paris Deal” might just have to become “the first good step forward” because as of now — we have given up the will to stop Global Warming, and instead are focused on making our continued survival a commercial exercise, or a technological leap forward. And as it stands we can only hope that technology and innovative science, will allow us to address catastrophic global warming.

But we all know that might be a prayer too far. The sixth great extinction is upon us and we are included in the menu… of despeciation.

And that is the Naked Truth.

We have to face REALITY sometimes…

Still we have no reason to get depressed about it, but instead let’s examine the bonds of our misery, and see where this might lead, because still the “Deal” has the potential to bring some measure of Goodness in the following much debated areas:

We could potentially avoid the most catastrophic effects of climate change and thus stop the 4 degree Celsius Global Warming to a 2 degree rise, with complete ice sheets melting, coastlines flooding from the rising seas, and all types of extreme weather patterns mostly avoided — and perhaps we might manage to leave behind a livable planet for the generations to come.

Or not…

The major oil producers and exporters like Russia, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, and Nigeria, already weakened by the extreme slide in the price of oil, could shed further financial muscle, economic might, and geo-strategic projection power — thus making them more democratic and conversely making also the world a safer place.

The agreement strengthens pro-climate parties like the Democrats and their affiliates including the incumbent US President Obama and Secretary of State John Kerry — who both lobbied hard — but it equally outrages many anti-climate parties like the Republicans and their affiliates who are skeptical of the extent of human-caused climate chaos and believe the deal favors environmental ideology over economic reality.

And although this deal is likely to be overshadowed in the current political environment because of heightened fears in regards to terrorism and economic uncertainty — the rising frequency of extreme storms, lengthy droughts, interchanged with massive floods, and severe chaotic and weird weather systems — many countries have raised concerns for ordinary citizens.

All these ambitious targets for limiting the rise in global temperatures may help countries and companies involved in renewable energy and energy efficiency by capitalizing the opportunities and expanding the renewable energy markets.

The “Paris accord” may make life difficult for some of the really big incumbent companies like the massive electric utilities and the oil, gas & coal producers, whose fuel burning releases the high levels of carbon dioxide that have caused the problem in the first place. Other green-house gas emitters like large animal farms will also be targeted because of methane release — that is 384 times more potent in impact on the atmosphere than CO2 — and which accounts for more global warming than all the cars moving around on the planet.

I fully expect more people to turn to a vegetarian life style in response, or as a political initiative, or an ideological and religious tradition, that promotes vegetarian eating as the climate friendly, life-style choice.

Ordinary people will notice greater emphasis in advertising and life-style campaigns for more efficient electrical products, homes, and vehicles, as well as dietary choices, and political personages.

Extraordinary people will create the products and the advertising campaigns that are climate friendly and thus become rather wealthy in the process of riding the wave of the Green Economy.

Many jobs could be created through the construction of a new energy infrastructure. From the new electrical grids with energy storage sites, to the deployment of massive solar fields, and wind arrays, all the way to the development of new transportation systems, and people moving utilities, that move away from dependence on the petrol gas pump, or the fossil fuel based massive grid systems.

Intelligence and New Green Economy will reign supreme and we shall see major Innovations on this field getting capitalized now. Indeed the Capital markets will finally accept the green issues…

Thus the much vaunted Green Economy will finally start taking off and we will create great new companies, billionaires and commercial concerns as well as economic superstars, and constellations, out of relatively poor countries, who happen to have an abundance of sun and wind, useful for renewable energy production.

That alone could bring some semblance of Equity in the disjointed agreement and it could further move the energy balance of power away from the fossil fuel exporting developing world and the First world companies of the industrialized countries, boosting technology-strong economies like the United States, European Union, and Japan — towards the emerging markets.

Capitalization of the new marketplaces should also advance the interests of the developing world and of the emerging markets as they develop homespun yet globally effective solutions for the generation, storage, and distribution of renewable energy.

Regardless of the possible and visible outcomes, by agreeing to the required regular reviews of emissions, every five years — this accord lays a foundation for stronger action in the future…
and it might lead to the creation of an Environmental Court to adjudicate these disputes that are certain to arise.

And to be truthful — in a nutshell, we are paving the way for a more energy-efficient and sustainable future for humanity as we embark on the first steps towards accepting and acting upon common sense and science.

Yet as a greenfield opportunity this agreement solidifies greenhouse gas pollution reduction targets from more than 190 countries accounting for more than 90 percent of global emissions.
It establishes transparency provisions to measure global progress and hold countries accountable, and it mobilizes financial support and private-sector investment to help developing countries adapt to the impacts of climate change and achieve sustainable economic growth.

President Obama, who regards tackling climate change as a central element of his legacy, spoke of the deal in a televised address from the White House. “This agreement sends a powerful signal that the world is fully committed to a low-carbon future,” he said. “We’ve shown that the world has both the will and the ability to take on this challenge.”
“The Paris agreement is testament to America’s ability to lead the world in building a clean energy future where no one is left out or left behind. And it was made possible in part by every person, business owner, and community in the United States and around the world that stepped up to prove we don’t have to choose between growing our economy and protecting our kids’ health and future, because it is now apparent that we can do both.

But we will only succeed if we redouble our efforts going forward to drive innovation, increase investment, and reap the benefits of the good-paying jobs that will come from transitioning to a clean energy economy. The next decade of action is critical—because if we do not press forward with driving clean energy growth and cutting carbon pollution across the economy, we will not be able to avoid catastrophic consequences.

We cannot afford to be slowed down by the climate skeptics or deterred by the defeatists who doubt America’s ability to meet this challenge. That’s why as President, I will make combating climate change a top priority from day one, and secure America’s future as the clean energy superpower of the 21st century.”

And for that I applaud President Obama, Secretary Kerry and our negotiating team for helping deliver a new, ambitious international climate agreement in Paris, because no matter what — this is a historic first step forward in meeting one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century: The global crisis of climate change and a fast warming planet…

Or as Miguel Arias Cañete, the European Union’s commissioner for energy and climate action, said amid the spirit of celebration that dominated the final hours of the negotiations, “Now the real work is finally ahead of us.”

Mr. Arias Cañete reminded delegates that the accord was the beginning of the real work. “Today, we celebrate,” he said. “Tomorrow, we have to act. This is what the world expects of us.”

Yours,
Dr Kroko

PS:

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/video/players/offsite/index.html?videoId=100000004090614&playerType=embed

Today we are fighting to limit the runaway Global Warming to a 2 degree Celsius although most of us know that we are set for a hosing of 4 degree Celsius or more.

And since that global warming is not containable nor evenly distributed across the globe — we are all in for major disruptions…

Observing the COP21 climate conference negotiators from Governments and NGOs, from more than a coupe of hundred countries around the world — setting out for another all-nighter, hanging on from delicate threads, and flimsy hopes, as they negotiate the fine points of the future Climate Treaty — gives me a certain sense of sadness for the graceful effort of so many, for the benefit of so few…

And as they are all huddled in small groups at the complex of Bourget in Paris, while embarking on yet another all-night meeting, fueled with tea and toast — third in a row — in order to try to reach a new global climate agreement, we have to contend with the French foreign minister, Laurent Fabius, telling them they are extremely close to the finishing line… but the Minister has sadly run out of carrots.

These marathon talks have become an exercise in a diplomatic attrition, with Fabius giving countries two hours to look at the latest draft before yet another less formal meeting – known as an “indaba”

“Indaba” is a Zulu word for a closed tribal elders meeting. And all these indabas are the nightly versions of the day time meetings in Le Bourget conference halls. As such they are far more intimate, smaller separate meetings chaired by country Environment Ministers, and usually begin after 11.30pm at night in Paris time.

Naturally one would expect that these all-night sessions would be “inabas of solutions” and negotiators would be given 30 to 45 minutes each to speak all of their concerns in a corner of the room in order to settle any impasse. Multiply the number of negotiators by the 30 to 45 minutes each — and soon enough you can also see how the night is spend and sunrise arrives without any real progress…

These futile night sessions come after negotiators already met all through Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday nights, in separate and inter-connected “indabas” thus allowing all the countries to once again vent their concerns and speak their mind at ease. And most importantly feeling secure that doing so, they will not derail the general meeting.

Negotiators from governments around the world continue to work to iron out their differences over a draft text of the COP21 agreement to stop dangerous global warming. Each “indaba” had seats for about 80 negotiators, with more crowding in at the back. One, chaired by Fabius met until 5am Thursday. Another allnighter chaired by the Peruvian environment minister, Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, met until 8am Friday…

At the very least all these “indabas” made sure every country felt that their views had been heard.

“They spend about 80% of their time repeating their previous positions, maybe 10% outlining new positions and only about 10% of the time compromising,” said a chief negotiator who took part in one of the all night meetings.

The US secretary of state, John Kerry, turned up at the Fabius chaired meeting about 2am Wednesday and had what observers described as an “animated” discussion with the US climate change envoy, Todd Stern, at the back of the room for about 20 minutes, possibly about separate informal talks on the issue of “loss and damage” – the idea that the agreement should recognise some countries will suffer irreparable harm from climate change.

The US is insistent any words about loss and damage should not suggest liability or compensation or open any possibility of legal action against US companies.

Australia was represented by officials on Wednesday night. The foreign minister, Julie Bishop, was on call but spent the night hosting a dinner for Australian business and environmental leaders attending the conference.

Apparently the official line is that the Paris climate deal is ‘close to the finish line’ but the talks are set to overrun the deadline that was shot today and will continue for Saturday and Sunday…

The French President, and the Foreign Minister along with the experts from the UN, spent Thursday once again carefully paring back the very many areas of disagreement to further distill the big political issues that it is hoped will form the basis of the final trade-off deal.

A group called Parisagreement.org has analysed this task by counting the numbers of brackets – indicating disagreement. When the Paris meeting began there were 1,609 sets of brackets. In the Wednesday night text there were 361. By Thursday night it was down to 50…

The key issues of dispute have been honed since the talks began 11 days ago and remain as such:

Vulnerable island states and many countries who support the idea of an ambitious agreement are insisting it clearly recognise that climate science requires global warming to eventually be contained below 1.5 degrees. Several ministers told Wednesday night’s indabas that they would not go home with a vague “expression of sympathy” on the issue. While most negotiators are still holding back their final bottom-line position, some – including St Lucia’s environment minister, James Fletcher, are understood to have told the meeting that the inclusion of a 1.5 degree target was his before leaving. The latest draft seeks to resolve this issue, saying countries will “hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C, recognising that this would significantly reduce risks and impacts of climate change”. This is presented as the final option.

Developing countries are insisting the agreement is clear about the funding they might receive to help reduce emissions and cope with locked-in climate change, with the $100bn a year in public and private finance now promised by 2020 as minimum for post-2020 funding. The latest draft still contains different wording about how ambitious the funding aim should be.

Developed countries including the US and Australia and vulnerable countries are insisting the agreement make it clear that eventually all countries will need to account for and report their emissions in similar ways, with regular reviews of national commitments. Developing countries want to keep the division set up in the 1992 framework climate convention between the requirements of rich and poor nations. This is not yet resolved.

The dispute over loss and damage is also unresolved.

And so is the dispute over the Environmental Court that the undersigned, founded many years back…

Still things progressed and the negotiators at the world climate talks of Paris released the latest “new” draft Friday that drops the most radical ideas — including an international tribunal to punish polluters — but leaves major issues unresolved, such as who should pay to help the most vulnerable nations cope with global warming.

John Kerry US Secretary of State, who had challenged diplomats to reach agreement by Friday’s end of day deadline, promised American funding for low-lying island nations and other countries hit hardest by the rising seas and extreme weather that scientists attribute to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and said: “Our aim can be nothing less than a steady transformation of the global economy.”

The latest “new draft” released by the U.N. climate agency is 29 pages, down from a 43-page version issued Saturday. There are about 100 places where there are decisions still to be made, including multiple options left in brackets, or blank spaces.

“We have never been this close to a climate change agreement,” said Maldives Environment Minister Thoriq Ibrahim, chairman of an alliance of island nations. “It’s now up to us ministers to show the leadership needed to make hard decisions that put the interests of people and the planet ahead of shortsighted politics.”
Ministers from more than 190 countries are trying to craft the first climate accord asking all nations to reduce or slow their emissions. The previous agreement, the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, required only rich countries to do so.

Yet we are all well aware that most man-made emissions come from the burning of oil, coal and gas — fossil fuels that meet upwards of 85% of global energy demand.

Replacing these highly polluting and global warming causing energy resources, with abundant and cheap renewable energy sources like wind, tidal & wave, and solar power — requires big upfront investments and technology, which poor countries say they can’t afford without help.

A previous draft suggested that intellectual property rights to clean technology be removed so that developing countries such as India could get access to it more easily. That was deleted from the latest draft.

The call for an International Tribunal of Climate Justice to punish rich countries that fail to live up to their commitments was also dropped, as were references to emissions from aviation and shipping.

Still the document doesn’t settle the sensitive question of whether advanced developing countries such as China, the oil-rich Arab nations, and Russia, should join industrialized countries in providing financial aid to the poorer ones for the purposes of Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change.

Earlier, Sec-State, John Kerry announced, that the United States will double its contribution to helping vulnerable nations adapt to the effects of climate change, increasing grant money to $860 million from $430 million by 2020.

Even though this money is not apparently clear where will they be found — it was a welcome sign that moved many nations forward from their intractable positions.

As always money talks and bullshit walks…

Yours,
Dr Kroko

Still the conference is on the cusp of getting the best possible outcome … but some key political issues remain to be resolved, and as we’ve seen time and again since the Copenhagen failure of the meetings — we best brace ourselves for the inevitable crash landing.

Screen Shot 2015-12-11 at 5.38.19 AM

Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko | December 2, 2015

In Paris Now…

In Paris now…

All Eyes Now Turn to Paris & the Climate Negotiators
By Rebecca Leber, Emma Foehringer Merchant, and Sasha Belenky

The Paris talks are falling behind schedule already, and it’s only day three.

Negotiators have a lot to do in very little time: They need to cut down a text of over 50 pages and resolve every minor and major word choice by December 11.

And they face their first major deadline on Saturday, when the French government, as the host of the talks, expects to receive a streamlined text.

Will they make it in time?

According to Carbon Pulse, negotiators are already meeting until 2 a.m., and, at the current pace, they will need to resolve a bracket every 90 seconds for the entire week to stay on track.

From there, higher-level negotiators will take this text to resolve the still-bigger issues.

Here’s the Environmental Parliament progress report on Paris Conference of the Parties — COP21 of 2015.

Twenty one years in the making this the state of our Environmental lack of Progress today.

Progress Report:

Commit to cut carbon emissions significantly by 2030.
China announced another step it will take in order to meet its goal of bringing down its greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, cutting pollution 60 percent from the power sector by 2020. Though the state-owned media provided little details of how to achieve this, the goal fits into China’s longer-term target.
Establish reporting and transparency requirements.
Transparency, according to U.S. climate envoy Todd Stern, “is an enormously important part of this agreement. I would say it’s a core part of this agreement.” This means defining when and how to report on progress, take inventory of actions, and review areas that need to be bolstered.
Create a payment system to finance climate adaptation.
There’s a huge gap between the $12 billion nations have promised in climate funds and the $100 billion annually that’s needed. It’s becoming clear that developed nations won’t meet that goal. Instead, there will be a heavy reliance on markets and private funding sources.
Put past disagreements aside.
Another obstacle to settling remaining questions around climate finance has emerged: India is insisting on gaining access to intellectual property rights to meet its clean energy goals, which U.S. businesses oppose.
Agree to return to the negotiating table regularly.
The U.S.’s pledge for Paris only goes out as far as 2025, and people are already starting to wonder when it will announce the 2030 pledge. Stern said the national target for greenhouse gasses could come in the early 2020s (something that also depends on the next administration).
Rethink the 2-degree target.
“This is half-assed and it’s half-baked,” climate scientist and activist James Hansen said from the sidelines of the Paris talks on Wednesday, arguing that countries’ commitments don’t do enough to address greenhouse gasses and sidestep more effective solutions, like a price on carbon.
There’s a lot of work to be done to bridge traditional divides and indifference over addressing climate change, but—for once—there are some signs of overcoming them. On Sunday, more than 700,000 people worldwide took part in climate marches, after the movement faced a setback when the main Paris march was canceled due to security concerns. President Barack Obama was among the 150 world leaders who showed up on the first day of the talks, and he framed a successful climate agreement as an “act of defiance” against the terrorists who struck Paris in November.

Here’s a roundup of the biggest news from around the conference and from around the World about the Paris COP21 conference today:

 

  • Divestment reaches a new milestone: $3.4 trillion in assets, which indicates the quickening growth of the movement. (New Republic)
  • Of the more than 50 corporate sponsors of the conference, several have ties to the fossil fuel industry. (Mother Jones)
  • Jeb Bush said he would have skipped the climate talks if he were president. If that happened, the U.S. would be the only major world economy not represented. (New Republic)
  • In France, there’s another group that’s really worried about climate change: winemakers. (Huffington Post)
  • The success or failure of the Paris agreement all comes down to what’s in the brackets. (The Atlantic)
  • Akon sat on a COP21 panel on sustainable development today, just the latest in his environmental exploits. (New Republic)
  • A big subject on day three is which countries will finance the innovation and programs climate change requires, and how much nations should contribute. (The New York Times)
  • The U.S. and China have appeared united at the conference, but how friendly are the two countries, really? (E&E Publishing)
  • COP21 is important, but it can also be amusing. In the first days of the conference, world leaders expressed the gravity of the talks with overused metaphors like “the planet is a patient” and “the eyes of the world are upon us.” (The Guardian)
  • Meat is a huge issue for climate change, but it’s not on the table at the negotiations. (National Journal)

Lots more to come through this blog i the next few days…

 

Yours,

Dr Kroko

PS:

Remaining optimistic…

Still ?

Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko | December 1, 2015

Relativity

Or how Einstein’s theory of relativity changed the world…

One hundred years ago, Albert Einstein set down the equation that rules the universe. Scientists have been lighting birthday candles for general relativity all year, including at the Institute for Advanced Study, where Einstein spent the last 22 years of his life.

One hundred years ago, Albert Einstein set down the equation that rules the universe.

This year in 2015, Physicist and Scientists have been lighting birthday candles for general relativity all year, including at the Institute for Advanced Study, where he stayed and taught until the end of his life, in Princeton New Jersey.

It does not need to be said, that the general theory of relativity transformed our understanding of space and time.

But back then by the fall of 1915, Albert Einstein was not a happy man. Indeed he was a bit grumpy.

And why not? Cheered on, to his disgust, by most of his Berlin colleagues, Germany had started a ruinous world war. He had split up with his wife, and she had decamped to Switzerland with his sons.

He was living alone. A friend, Janos Plesch, once said, “He sleeps until he is awakened; he stays awake until he is told to go to bed; he will go hungry until he is given something to eat; and then he eats until he is stopped.”

Even worse, he had discovered a fatal flaw in his new theory of gravity, propounded with great fanfare only a couple of years before. And now he no longer had the field to himself. The German mathematician David Hilbert was breathing down his neck.

So Einstein went back to the blackboard. And on Nov. 25, 1915, he set down the equation that rules the universe. As compact and mysterious as a Viking rune, it describes space-time as a kind of sagging mattress where matter and energy, like a heavy sleeper, distort the geometry of the cosmos to produce the effect we call gravity, obliging light beams as well as marbles and falling apples to follow curved paths through space.

This is the general theory of relativity. It’s a standard trope in science writing to say that some theory or experiment transformed our understanding of space and time. General relativity really did.

Since the dawn of the scientific revolution and the days of Isaac Newton, the discoverer of gravity, scientists and philosophers had thought of space-time as a kind of stage on which we actors, matter and energy, strode and strutted.

With general relativity, the stage itself sprang into action. Space-time could curve, fold, wrap itself up around a dead star and disappear into a black hole. It could jiggle like Santa Claus’ belly, radiating waves of gravitational compression, or whirl like dough in a Mixmaster. It could even rip or tear. It could stretch and grow, or it could collapse into a speck of infinite density at the end or beginning of time.

Scientists have been lighting birthday candles for general relativity all year, including here at the Institute for Advanced Study, where Einstein spent the last 22 years of his life, and where they gathered in November to review a century of gravity and to attend performances by Brian Greene, the Columbia University physicist and World Science Festival impresario, and the violinist Joshua Bell. Even nature, it seems, has been doing its bit. Last spring, astronomers said they had discovered an “Einstein cross,” in which the gravity of a distant cluster of galaxies had split the light from a supernova beyond them into separate beams in which telescopes could watch the star exploding again and again, in a cosmic version of the movie “Groundhog Day.”

Hardly anybody would be more surprised by all this than Einstein himself. The space-time he conjured turned out to be far more frisky than he had bargained for back in 1907.

It was then — perhaps tilting too far back in his chair at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland — that he had the revelation that a falling body would feel weightless. That insight led him to try to extend his new relativity theory from slip-siding trains to the universe.

According to that foundational theory, now known as special relativity, the laws of physics don’t care how fast you are going — the laws of physics and the speed of light are the same. Einstein figured that the laws of physics should look the same no matter how you were moving — falling, spinning, tumbling or being pressed into the seat of an accelerating car.

One consequence, Einstein quickly realized, was that even light beams would bend downward and time would slow in a gravitational field. Gravity was not a force transmitted across space-time like magnetism; it was the geometry of that space-time itself that kept the planets in their orbits and apples falling.

It would take him another eight difficult years to figure out just how this elastic space-time would work, during which he went from Bern to Prague to Zurich and then to a prestigious post in Berlin.

In 1913, he and his old classmate Marcel Grossmann published with great fanfare an outline of a gravity theory that was less relative than they had hoped. But it did predict light bending, and Erwin Freundlich, an astronomer at the Berlin Observatory, set off to measure the deflection of starlight during a solar eclipse in the Crimea.

When World War I started, Freundlich and others on his expedition were arrested as spies. Then Einstein discovered a flaw in his calculations.

“There are two ways that a theoretician goes astray,” he wrote to the physicist Hendrik Lorentz. “1) The devil leads him around by the nose with a false hypothesis (for this he deserves pity) 2) His arguments are erroneous and ridiculous (for this he deserves a beating).”

And so the stage was set for a series of lectures to the Prussian Academy that would constitute the final countdown on his quest to grasp gravity.

The breakthrough moment came soon enough, because midway through the month, he used the emerging theory to calculate a puzzling anomaly in the motion of Mercury; its egg-shaped orbit changes by 43 seconds of arc per century. The answer was spot on, and Einstein had heart palpitations.

The equation that Einstein wrote out a week later was identical to one that he had written in his notebook two years before but had abandoned.

On one side of the equal sign was the distribution of matter and energy in space. On the other side was the geometry of the space, the so-called metric, which was a prescription for how to compute the distance between two points.

As the Princeton physicist John Wheeler later described it, “Space-time tells matter how to move; matter tells space-time how to curve.” Easy to say, but hard to compute. The stars might be actors on a stage set, but every time they moved, the whole stage rearranged itself.

It wasn’t long before Einstein received his first comeuppance.

In December 1915, he received a telegram from Karl Schwarzschild, a German astrophysicist serving at the front in the war, who had solved Einstein’s equation to describe the gravitational field around a solitary star.

One strange feature of his work was that at a certain distance from the star — to be known forever as the Schwarzschild radius — the equations would go kerblooey.

“If this result were real, it would be a true disaster,” Einstein said. This was the beginning of black holes.

That Einstein’s equations could be solved at all for a single star baffled him. One of his guiding lights had been the Austrian physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach, who taught that everything in the universe was relative. Einstein took Mach’s Principle, as he called it, to mean that it should be impossible to solve his equations for the case of a solitary object.

“One can express it as a joke,” he told Schwarzschild. “If all things were to disappear from the world, then according to Newton Galilean inertial space remains. According to my conception, however, nothing is left.”

And yet here was a star, according to his equations, bending space all by itself, a little universe in a nutshell.

Like most of his colleagues at the time, Einstein considered the universe to consist of a cloud of stars, the Milky Way, surrounded by vast space. What was beyond? Was the universe infinite? And if so, what stopped a star from drifting so far that it would have nothing to relate to?

To avoid such problems, Einstein set out in 1917 to design a universe without boundaries. In his model, space is bent around to meet itself, like the side of a tin can.

“I have committed another suggestion with respect to gravitation which exposes me to the danger of being confined to the nut house,” he confided to a friend.

This got rid of the need for troublesome boundaries. But this universe was unstable, and the cylinder would collapse if something didn’t hold its sides apart.

That something was a fudge factor added to the equations Einstein called the cosmological constant. Physically, this new term, denoted by the Greek letter lambda, represented a long-range repulsive force.

The happy result, Einstein thought, was a static universe of the type nearly everybody believed they lived in and in which geometry was strictly determined by matter.

But it didn’t last. Willem de Sitter, a Dutch astronomer, came up with his own solution describing a universe that had no matter at all and was flying apart.

“It would be unsatisfactory, in my opinion,” Einstein grumbled, “if a world without matter were possible.”

And then Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe really was expanding.

If the cosmological constant couldn’t keep the universe still, then forget about it and Mach’s Principle, Einstein said. “It dates back to the time in which one thought that the ‘ponderable bodies’ are the only physically real entities,” he later wrote to the British cosmologist Felix Pirani.

But it was too late. Quantum mechanics soon invested empty space with energy. In 1998 astronomers discovered that dark energy, acting just like the cosmological constant, seems to be blowing space-time apart, just as in de Sitter’s universe.

In fact, most cosmologists agree today that not quite all motion is relative and that space-time does have an existence independent of matter, though it is anything but static and absolute. The best example is gravitational waves, ripples of compression and stretching speeding through empty space at the speed of light.

Einstein was back and forth on this. In 1916, he told Schwarzschild they did not exist, then published a paper saying they did. In 1936, he and his assistant did the same flip-flop again.

Nobody said this was easy, even for Einstein.

He set out to do one thing, namely make all motion relative, Michel Janssen, a science historian at the University of Minnesota, told a Princeton gathering this month. He failed, but in the process succeeded in doing something very interesting, unifying the effects of acceleration and gravity.

The story goes to show, he said, that Bob Dylan was right when he sang “there’s no success like failure,” but wrong that “failure is no success at all.”

Yours,
Dr Kroko

PS:

Einstein’s greatest success came in 1919, when Arthur Eddington did the experiment that Freundlich had set out to do, and ascertained that lights in the heavens were all askew during an eclipse, bent by the sun’s dark gravity, just as Einstein had predicted.

Asked what he would have done if general relativity had failed, Einstein said, “Then I would have been sorry for the dear Lord. The theory is correct.”

Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko | November 29, 2015

Meditations

Marcus Aurelius, considers how befriending this eternal interplay of life and death, the inevitable and indiscriminate nature of this inhale-exhale cycle that is life — can inform and ennoble our existence.

Simple meditation upon these eternal truths, can enoble us while also strengthening through the understanding of the utter simplicity of our impermanence…

He admonishes and councels us over the ages, softly-softly to only take care of doing one thing:

“Just that you do the right thing.
The rest doesn’t matter.

Cold or warm.
Tired or well-rested.
Despised or honored.
Dying … or busy with other assignments.

Because dying, too, is one of our assignments in life.
There as well: Do what needs doing…

Some things are rushing into existence, others out of it. Some of what now exists is already gone. Change and flux constantly remake the world, just as the incessant progression of time remakes eternity.

We find ourselves in a river. Which of the things around us should we value when none of them can offer a firm foothold?

Like an attachment to a sparrow: we glimpse it and it’s gone.

And life itself: like the decoction of blood, the drawing in of air. We expel the power of breathing we drew in at birth, just yesterday or the day before, breathing it out, like the air we exhale at each moment.

Alexander the Great and his mule driver both died and the same thing happened to both.
They were absorbed alike into the life force of the world, or dissolved alike into atoms.”

But rather than being dispirited by this awareness, we can find in it an enlivening force of moral solidity in the face of our ephemeral existence:

“Keep this constantly in mind: that all sorts of people have died — all professions, all nationalities. Follow the thought all the way down to Philistion, Phoebus, and Origanion.

Now extend it to other species.
We have to go there too, where all of them have already gone:

… the eloquent and the wise — Heraclitus, Pythagoras, Socrates …
… the heroes of old, the soldiers and kings who followed them …
… the smart, the generous, the hardworking, the cunning, the selfish …
… and even those who laughed at the whole brief, fragile business.

All underground for a long time now.

And what harm does it do them? Or the others either — the ones whose names we don’t even know?

The only thing that isn’t worthless: to live this life out truthfully and rightly. And be patient with those who don’t.”

Yours,
Dr Kroko

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