Posted by: Dr Churchill | March 27, 2014

On this day March 27th 1854 the Crimean War started when the United Kingdom declared war on Russia

Crimean War
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Crimean War (disambiguation).
Crimean War
Part of Ottoman wars in Europe and the Russo-Turkish wars
Panorama dentro.JPG
Detail of Franz Roubaud’s panoramic painting The Siege of Sevastopol (1904)
Date October 1853 – February 1856
Location Crimean Peninsula, Caucasus, Balkans, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, White Sea, Far East
Result Allied victory, Treaty of Paris

France French Empire
British Empire
Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Sardinia
Duchy of Nassau

Russian Empire

Commanders and leaders

Flag of France Napoléon III
Flag of France Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud
Flag of France Maréchal Canrobert
Flag of France Aimable Pélissier
Flag of France François Achille Bazaine
Flag of France Patrice de Mac-Mahon
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen Victoria
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Earl of Aberdeen
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Lord Raglan
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Sir James Simpson
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Sir William Codrington
Ottoman Empire Omar Pasha
Ottoman Empire İskender Pasha
Piedmont-Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II
Piedmont-Sardinia Alfonso La Màrmora

Russian Empire Nicholas I
Russian Empire Alexander II
Russian Empire Prince Menshikov
Russian Empire Pavel Nakhimov †
Russian Empire Vasily Zavoyko
Russian Empire Nikolay Muravyov
Russian Empire Yevfimy Putyatin
Russian Empire Vladimir Istomin †
Russian Empire Count Tolstoy

Total: 1,000,000

Flag of France 400,000 French
Ottoman Empire 300,000 Ottoman
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 250,000 British
Piedmont-Sardinia 18,000 Sardinians[1]
4,250 British German Legion[citation needed]
Flag of Switzerland 2,200 Swiss legion[citation needed]
Flag of The Kingdom of Slavonia 1,400 Slavic legion[citation needed]

Total: 710,000

Russian Empire 700,000 Russians[2]
Flag of the First Bulgarian Legion, 1862 4,500 Bulgarian legion[citation needed]
Principality of Montenegro 2,000 Serbian-Montenegrin legion[citation needed]
1,000 Greek legion

Casualties and losses
Total: 350,000–375,000 dead[3]

Ottoman Empire
Total dead est. 95,000[4]-175,300[2]

France French Empire
Total dead: 95,000[3] of which:
10,240[4] killed in action;
20,000 died of wounds;
c. 60,000[4] died of disease

British Empire
Total dead: 21,097[4] of which :
2,755[4] killed in action;
2,019 died of wounds;
16,000[4]-16,323 died of disease

Kingdom of Sardinia
2,050 died from all causes[5]
Total: 220,000 dead:
80,000 killed in action
40,000 died of wounds
100,000 died of disease[6]

The Crimean War (pronounced /kraɪˈmiːən/ or /krɨˈmiːən/) (October 1853 – February 1856)[7][8]:7 was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. While neutral, the Austrian Empire also played a role in defeating the Russians.

The immediate issue involved the rights of Christians in the Holy Land, which was controlled by the Ottoman Empire.[9] The French promoted the rights of Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Orthodox. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire, and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. Russia lost and the Ottomans gained a twenty-year respite from Russian pressure. The Christians were granted a degree of official equality and the Orthodox gained control of the Christian churches in dispute.[10]:415 Russia survived, gained a new appreciation for its religious diversity, and launched a reform program with far-reaching consequences.[11]

Russia and the Ottoman Empire went to war in October 1853 over Russia’s rights to protect Orthodox Christians. Russia gained the upper hand after destroying the Ottoman fleet at the Black Sea port of Sinope; to stop Russia’s conquest, France and Britain entered in March 1854. Most of the fighting took place for control of the Black Sea, with land battles on the Crimean peninsula in southern Russia. The Russians held their great fortress at Sevastopol for over a year. After it fell, a peace was arranged at Paris in March 1856. The religion issue had already been resolved. The main results were that the Black Sea was neutralised—Russia would not have any warships there—and the two vassals Wallachia and Moldavia became largely independent under nominal Ottoman rule.

There were smaller campaigns in eastern Anatolia, Caucasus, the Baltic Sea, the Pacific Ocean and the White Sea. In Russia, this war is also known as the “Eastern War” (Russian: Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina).

The war transformed the region. Because of battles, population exchanges, and nationalist movements incited by the war, the present-day states of Ukraine, Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and regions such as Crimea and the Caucasus all changed in small or large ways due to this conflict.[12]

The Crimean War is notorious for logistical, medical and tactical failure on both sides. The naval side saw both a successful Allied campaign which eliminated most of the ships of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, and a successful blockade by the Royal Navy in the Baltic. It was one of the first “modern” wars because it saw the first use of major technologies, such as railways and telegraphs. It is also famous for the work of Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole, who pioneered contrasting modern medical practices while treating the wounded. The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written reports and photographs.

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