Posted by: Dr Pano Kroko Churchill | December 17, 2015

WISHFUL THINKING & THE COMPLETE PARIS ACCORD

In Paris back in 1928, representatives of fifteen countries, including the United States, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, gathered in the French capital and signed the General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy. Put together by Frank B. Kellogg, the U.S. Secretary of State, and Aristide Briand, the French foreign minister, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, as it is usually called, sought to outlaw warfare as a means of settling territorial disputes. Despite the treaty’s lack of an enforcement mechanism, its signing was hailed in some quarters as a historic turning point that would help keep the world at peace. In 1929, Kellogg received the Nobel Peace Prize; by 1933, sixty-five countries had agreed to abide by the agreement.

Within a decade, the world was at war.

Today the new Paris Accord — the Paris Climate Deal to slow down climate change was thrashed out in Le Bourget conference hall of COP21, by 195 countries again with AMerica at the lead.

Yet similarly today’s Paris Accord fails to map out steep enough cuts in carbon dioxide emissions to limit global warming to the target of at least 2 degrees Celsius global warming (3.6 Fahrenheit), various CLimate & Earth scientists who studied the agreement and participated in the discussions have said.

Negotiations on this Paris Agreement to curb greenhouse gas emissions, blamed for warming the planet and disrupting the climate, were extended by a day and a half to Saturday night in order to overcome the stubborn divisions about the limits to warming gases in order to stop advanced global warming. This was the main sticky point among the 195 countries taking part all along.

Also conditionality and thus the deal text, released on Saturday night, also proposes that emissions peak “as soon as possible”, with rapid cuts thereafter, towards achieving “greenhouse gas emissions neutrality in the second half of the century”.

Neutrality refers to all greenhouse gases, not just carbon dioxide, and means net zero man-made emissions from all sectors.

Overall emissions would need to be reduced to as close to zero as possible and any remaining would have to be soaked up by forests and soils or buried underground by costly technology such as carbon capture and storage.

So we have to ask this: Could the Paris Climate Deal save our civilization?

Maybe.

And although that may not sound like a ringing endorsement — Mr Paul Krugman the noted economist claims, that it’s actually the best climate news we’ve had in a very long time because until very recently there were two huge roadblocks in the way of any kind of global deal on climate: China’s soaring consumption of coal, and the implacable opposition of America’s Republican Party. But there have been important changes on both fronts.

And although China and India will keep on building coal fired power stations for the next twenty years — still there is a visible shift in Chinese attitudes. China faces a huge air quality crisis, brought on largely by coal-burning, which makes it far more willing to wean itself from the worst form of fossil fuel consumption. And China’s rapidly growing middle class demands a higher quality of life, including air that’s relatively safe to breathe.
Which brings us to the U.S. Republican attitudes: the G.O.P. is spiraling ever deeper into a black hole of denial and anti science conspiracy theorizing. The game changing news is that this may not matter as much as we thought, new technology has fundamentally changed the rules.

Scientists said the targets in the deal were too lax to achieve the goal of limiting global temperature rises above pre-industrial times to “well below 2C”, while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5C (2.7F).

The rise in average global temperatures above pre-industrial times will exceed 1C this year alone, Britain’s Met Office has said. And another degree next year and so on, so forth…

More than 100 developing nations favor the 1.5C goal, saying higher temperature rise targets will not only bring more floods, droughts, decertification and sea level rises that could swamp low-lying islands from the Pacific to the Caribbean — but cannot be guaranteed to stop at 2 degree Celsius either.

There is not one reasonable scientist who claims that there is a certain way to stop Climate Warming at an exact level — nor is there a claim that we have an exact science to stop the global warming at any level…

“This is wishful thinking. You might call it pie in the sky,” Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, head of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, has said.

He said emissions neutrality would have to be reached by 2050 to achieve the 1.5C goal, yet the text was too vague by talking about the second half of the century – up to 2099.

To meet a 2C limit, global emissions would have to peak by 2020 with net zero emissions of carbon dioxide by 2070, according to the U.N. panel of climate scientists.

Current national emissions cut plans put the planet on a far higher path, unless the world could abruptly shift to “negative emissions”, such as soaking up greenhouse gases from nature after 2030 with new technologies, Schellnhuber said.

Hansen seems to agree that this whole thing is wishful thinking… and he accuses the UN and the United States for a sham and fake agreement that will save no one.

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J’ Accuse…

So far, more than 180 nations have put forward plans to cut emissions but they put the world on a path to warming anywhere from 2.7C to 3.7C, according to scientific studies.

Scientists also said the language was weaker than in previous drafts of the Paris Deal…

“This has been replaced by rather vague formulations,” said Stefen Kalbekken, from the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research in Oslo.

Meeting a 1.5C limit would require higher energy prices to spur investment in cleaner energy sources, bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, which captures carbon dioxide and stores it underground.

“It will need the development of a capacity for disposing of CO2 on a reasonably large scale, either captured from the air or from emissions from fossil fuels that countries or companies simply cannot bring themselves to leave in the ground,” said Myles Allen, professor of geosystem science at the University of Oxford.

CCS technology is still small scale and very costly. There are currently 15 projects in operation worldwide.

The International Energy Agency has said that by 2040, four billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions must be captured to keep global warming at bay, which is 100 times more than the total CCS projects expected to be online in the next 18 months.

Still today President Obama, President Hollande, and Prime Minister Cameron are right: the climate-change agreement in Paris over the weekend was historic. Countries from the developed and developing world alike—a hundred and eighty eight of them—came together and pledged to reduce carbon emissions and limit global warming to “well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels.” After the deal was finalized, many prominent environmentalists joined the politicians in hailing it as a turning point. Joe Romm, who founded the influential Climate Progress blog, called it a “literally world-changing deal.” May Boeve, the executive director of 350.org, said, “This marks the end of the era of fossil fuels.”

Perhaps the most telling verdict came from Jeffrey Sachs, the director of the Earth Institute, at Columbia University, who, writing in the Financial Times, called the Paris agreement a “diplomatic triumph.” With a big push from the Obama Administration and the input of China, India, and other developing countries, officials from the French foreign ministry shepherded 195 nation’s representatives through a text that most all sides could agree upon.

They ensured there was no repeat of what happened in Copenhagen six years ago, when a similar meeting COP15 broke up in horrible acrimony. But the cost of bringing all sides together was considerable. Rather than reaching a binding agreement, with economic incentives for good behavior and sanctions for scofflaws, the delegates settled for a what a skeptic might describe as a common expression of good intentions.

The only way to ensure the participation of the United States and China was to make the agreement non-binding. The Obama Administration insisted on it, well aware that the US Senate wouldn’t ratify a formal treaty. China, which has long insisted that countries should be allowed to tackle climate change in their own ways, sided with Washington. If a country fails to live up to what it promised in Paris, there is no obvious recourse beyond naming and shaming.

Not only is the accord voluntary but countries got to set their own targets for carbon emissions. As I noted a couple of weeks ago, the Paris talks were a bit like a potluck dinner, where guests bring what they can. The participant countries offered up a wide range of emissions targets, which, taken together, scientists reckon, will be insufficient to keep warming to two degrees Celsius, never mind the more ambitious target of 1.5 C that was also mentioned in the agreement. Defenders of the Paris accord concede this is a weakness. But they point to the fact that, beginning in 2020, countries will be obliged to lay out more ambitious targets every five years.

Another potential problem with the agreement is that it doesn’t directly tackle one of the biggest sources of man-made carbon emissions: coal. While the United States, the world’s second-largest burner, is taking steps to reduce its reliance on this fuel source, China, India, and SOuth Africa — respectively the biggest and third-biggest and fourth biggest coal users, are still building coal-fired power stations at a rapid clip. According to some estimates, more than a thousand more of them could be constructed during the next decade or so.

In all likelihood, the Paris accord won’t prevent this from happening.

The basic idea behind the agreement is that, with financial aid from rich countries like the United States and Germany, developing economies, such as India and Vietnam, will gradually switch to renewable sources of energy, such as solar and wind. But the West’s commitment to contribute a hundred billion dollars a year, at least to this cause, is also voluntary. And, in any case, most experts believe it would cost much more than a hundred billion dollars a year for developing countries to switch to renewables.

Finally, the accord doesn’t include a tax on carbon, which would change the financial incentives facing individual decision-makers, such as power suppliers and motorists. Instead of seeking to use the price mechanism, the agreement largely relies on a top-down approach in which governments order energy companies and others to meet certain targets. (Individual countries are, of course, free to use carbon taxes, or cap-and-trade schemes, if they want to. China, for one, appears to be moving in this direction.)

However the Paris Accord gives a huge boost as an incentive to the energy revolution of Renewables, Clean Technology, and sustainable energy.

And when the Capital markets price the risk of using fossil fuels and financing their producers and utilities they will signal with fervor towards using their magnificent leverage towards Clean Energy.

Many people still seem to believe that renewable energy is hippie-dippy stuff, not a serious part of our future. The reality, however, is that costs of solar and wind power have fallen dramatically, to the point where they are close to competitive with fossil fuels even without special incentives — and progress on energy storage has made their prospects even better. Renewable energy has also become a big employer with many installation that deliver huge value to investors and consumers alike all the while producing No Emissions that warm the planet.

This energy revolution has two big implications. The first is that the cost of sharp emission reductions will be much less than even optimists used to assume… The second is that given a moderate boost — the kind that the Paris accord could provide — renewable energy could quickly give rise to new interest groups with a positive stake in saving the planet, offering an offset to the fear mongering politics and pressure groups of the Kochs, the Exxons, and other such animals.

Of course, it could easily all go terribly wrong too, and then we could all go belly up, and the agreement will be deemed to be pear shaped from the get go. Because if and when President Trump, or President Cruz, or President Rubio, might arrive — they are sure to scuttle the whole deal, and by the time we get another chance to do something about the fast warming climate it could be too late, and we’ll go the way of the dinosaurs.

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But it doesn’t have to happen that way.

Because I don’t think it’s naïve to suggest that what came out of Paris gives us real reason to hope.

Indeed it does give us reason to have HOPE in an area where hope has been a difficult commodity to come by and all too scarce in our world…

So maybe we’re not all doomed after all.

Insofar as there is any beguiling economic logic behind the accord, it relies on the twentieth-century notion of indicative planning.

Now that the nations of the world have signaled they are serious about reducing carbon emissions, the argument goes, there will be a huge wave of private-sector investment in renewable energy, and in other environmentally friendly technologies, such as carbon sequestration.

By the time the emissions reductions proffered in Paris start to bite, the technology will be in place for countries to meet their power needs in a green and cost effective manner.

Yours,
Dr Kroko

PS:

That is the optimistic scenario, and, after all the setbacks of the past twenty years, this is an occasion to be hopeful. In the United States and other western countries, the “dash to gas” is substituting a relatively clean fossil fuel for a much dirtier one. Some genuinely green technologies, such as solar panels and wind turbines, have already made great strides. And the decision by the Chinese Communist Party to get serious about tackling air pollution and warming has irrevocably altered the global politics of climate change.

Realism, however, is also a virtue. Right now, according to figures from the World Bank, the United States emits about seventeen tons of carbon dioxide per capita, and India emits 1.7 metric tons per capita. As India and other developing countries continue to industrialize and use more energy, that huge gap will in emissions undoubtedly narrow. But the world’s sustainable “carbon budget”—the amount that can be burned without sparking a much more dramatic rise in temperatures—is shrinking all the time.

And with the Paris Accord of 1928 to remind us of what at stake … we best stay alert and vigilant to defend our world from the rapacious forces that have now been given Carte Blanche to pollute at will and seemingly without any cost.

To read the whole Paris Accord carry on reading the text bellow and You could also access this for yourself, in order to evaluate the situation independently because it’s all a matter of perspective.

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For the PDF, of the United Nations agreement you must look right here: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/cop21/eng/l09r01.pdf

COP21 Paris Accord, Full Text:

Conference of the Parties
Twenty-first session
Paris, 30 November to 11 December 2015
Agenda item 4(b)
Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (decision 1/CP.17)
Adoption of a protocol, another legal instrument, or an
agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention
applicable to all Parties
ADOPTION OF THE PARIS AGREEMENT
Proposal by the President
Draft decision -/CP.21
The Conference of the Parties,
Recalling decision 1/CP.17 on the establishment of the Ad Hoc Working Group on
the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action,
Also recalling Articles 2, 3 and 4 of the Convention,
Further recalling relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties, including
decisions 1/CP.16, 2/CP.18, 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20,
Welcoming the adoption of United Nations General Assembly resolution
A/RES/70/1, “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, in
particular its goal 13, and the adoption of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the third
International Conference on Financing for Development and the adoption of the Sendai
Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction,
Recognizing that climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible
threat to human societies and the planet and thus requires the widest possible cooperation
by all countries, and their participation in an effective and appropriate international
response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions,
Also recognizing that deep reductions in global emissions will be required in order
to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention and emphasizing the need for urgency
in addressing climate change,
Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties
should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their
respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples,
+
United Nations FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
Distr.: Limited
12 December 2015
Original: English
FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
2
local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable
situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of
women and intergenerational equity,
Also acknowledging the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties
arising from the impact of the implementation of response measures and, in this regard,
decisions 5/CP.7, 1/CP.10, 1/CP.16 and 8/CP.17,
Emphasizing with serious concern the urgent need to address the significant gap
between the aggregate effect of Parties’ mitigation pledges in terms of global annual
emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 and aggregate emission pathways consistent with
holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above preindustrial
levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above preindustrial
levels,
Also emphasizing that enhanced pre‐2020 ambition can lay a solid foundation for
enhanced post‐2020 ambition,
Stressing the urgency of accelerating the implementation of the Convention and its
Kyoto Protocol in order to enhance pre-2020 ambition,
Recognizing the urgent need to enhance the provision of finance, technology and
capacity-building support by developed country Parties, in a predictable manner, to enable
enhanced pre-2020 action by developing country Parties,
Emphasizing the enduring benefits of ambitious and early action, including major
reductions in the cost of future mitigation and adaptation efforts,
Acknowledging the need to promote universal access to sustainable energy in
developing countries, in particular in Africa, through the enhanced deployment of
renewable energy,
Agreeing to uphold and promote regional and international cooperation in order to
mobilize stronger and more ambitious climate action by all Parties and non-Party
stakeholders, including civil society, the private sector, financial institutions, cities and
other subnational authorities, local communities and indigenous peoples,
I. ADOPTION
1. Decides to adopt the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (hereinafter referred to as “the Agreement”) as contained in
the annex;
2. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations to be the Depositary of the
Agreement and to have it open for signature in New York, United States of America, from
22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017;
3. Invites the Secretary-General to convene a high-level signature ceremony for the
Agreement on 22 April 2016;
4. Also invites all Parties to the Convention to sign the Agreement at the ceremony to
be convened by the Secretary-General, or at their earliest opportunity, and to deposit their
respective instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, where appropriate,
as soon as possible;
5. Recognizes that Parties to the Convention may provisionally apply all of the
provisions of the Agreement pending its entry into force, and requests Parties to provide
notification of any such provisional application to the Depositary;
FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
3
6. Notes that the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for
Enhanced Action, in accordance with decision 1/CP.17, paragraph 4, has been completed;
7. Decides to establish the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement under the
same arrangement, mutatis mutandis, as those concerning the election of officers to the
Bureau of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action;
1
8. Also decides that the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement shall prepare
for the entry into force of the Agreement and for the convening of the first session of the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement;
9. Further decides to oversee the implementation of the work programme resulting
from the relevant requests contained in this decision;
10. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to report regularly to
the Conference of the Parties on the progress of its work and to complete its work by the
first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement;
11. Decides that the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement shall hold its
sessions starting in 2016 in conjunction with the sessions of the Convention subsidiary
bodies and shall prepare draft decisions to be recommended through the Conference of the
Parties to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement for consideration and adoption at its first session;
II. INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS
12. Welcomes the intended nationally determined contributions that have been
communicated by Parties in accordance with decision 1/CP.19, paragraph 2(b);
13. Reiterates its invitation to all Parties that have not yet done so to communicate to the
secretariat their intended nationally determined contributions towards achieving the
objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2 as soon as possible and well in
advance of the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2016)
and in a manner that facilitates the clarity, transparency and understanding of the intended
nationally determined contributions;
14. Requests the secretariat to continue to publish the intended nationally determined
contributions communicated by Parties on the UNFCCC website;
15. Reiterates its call to developed country Parties, the operating entities of the
Financial Mechanism and any other organizations in a position to do so to provide support
for the preparation and communication of the intended nationally determined contributions
of Parties that may need such support;
16. Takes note of the synthesis report on the aggregate effect of intended nationally
determined contributions communicated by Parties by 1 October 2015, contained in
document FCCC/CP/2015/7;
17. Notes with concern that the estimated aggregate greenhouse gas emission levels in
2025 and 2030 resulting from the intended nationally determined contributions do not fall
within least-cost 2 ˚C scenarios but rather lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in
2030, and also notes that much greater emission reduction efforts will be required than
those associated with the intended nationally determined contributions in order to hold the
increase in the global average temperature to below 2 ˚C above pre-industrial levels by

1 Endorsed by decision 2/CP.18, paragraph 2.
FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
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reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or to 1.5 ˚C above pre-industrial levels by reducing to
a level to be identified in the special report referred to in paragraph 21 below;
18. Also notes, in this context, the adaptation needs expressed by many developing
country Parties in their intended nationally determined contributions;
19. Requests the secretariat to update the synthesis report referred to in paragraph 16
above so as to cover all the information in the intended nationally determined contributions
communicated by Parties pursuant to decision 1/CP.20 by 4 April 2016 and to make it
available by 2 May 2016;
20. Decides to convene a facilitative dialogue among Parties in 2018 to take stock of the
collective efforts of Parties in relation to progress towards the long-term goal referred to in
Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Agreement and to inform the preparation of nationally
determined contributions pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 8, of the Agreement;
21. Invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to provide a special report in
2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related
global greenhouse gas emission pathways;
III. DECISIONS TO GIVE EFFECT TO THE AGREEMENT
MITIGATION
22. Invites Parties to communicate their first nationally determined contribution no later
than when the Party submits its respective instrument of ratification, accession, or approval
of the Paris Agreement. If a Party has communicated an intended nationally determined
contribution prior to joining the Agreement, that Party shall be considered to have satisfied
this provision unless that Party decides otherwise;
23. Urges those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution pursuant to
decision 1/CP.20 contains a time frame up to 2025 to communicate by 2020 a new
nationally determined contribution and to do so every five years thereafter pursuant to
Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Agreement;
24. Requests those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution pursuant
to decision 1/CP.20 contains a time frame up to 2030 to communicate or update by 2020
these contributions and to do so every five years thereafter pursuant to Article 4, paragraph
9, of the Agreement;
25. Decides that Parties shall submit to the secretariat their nationally determined
contributions referred to in Article 4 of the Agreement at least 9 to 12 months in advance of
the relevant meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to the Paris Agreement with a view to facilitating the clarity, transparency and
understanding of these contributions, including through a synthesis report prepared by the
secretariat;
26. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop further
guidance on features of the nationally determined contributions for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session;
27. Agrees that the information to be provided by Parties communicating their
nationally determined contributions, in order to facilitate clarity, transparency and
understanding, may include, as appropriate, inter alia, quantifiable information on the
reference point (including, as appropriate, a base year), time frames and/or periods for
implementation, scope and coverage, planning processes, assumptions and methodological
approaches including those for estimating and accounting for anthropogenic greenhouse gas
FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
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emissions and, as appropriate, removals, and how the Party considers that its nationally
determined contribution is fair and ambitious, in the light of its national circumstances, and
how it contributes towards achieving the objective of the Convention as set out in its
Article 2;
28. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop further
guidance for the information to be provided by Parties in order to facilitate clarity,
transparency and understanding of nationally determined contributions for consideration
and adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement at its first session;
29. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to develop modalities and
procedures for the operation and use of the public registry referred to in Article 4,
paragraph 12, of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session;
30. Further requests the secretariat to make available an interim public registry in the
first half of 2016 for the recording of nationally determined contributions submitted in
accordance with Article 4 of the Agreement, pending the adoption by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement of the modalities and
procedures referred to in paragraph 29 above;
31. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to elaborate, drawing
from approaches established under the Convention and its related legal instruments as
appropriate, guidance for accounting for Parties’ nationally determined contributions, as
referred to in Article 4, paragraph 13, of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption by
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at
its first session, which ensures that:
(a) Parties account for anthropogenic emissions and removals in accordance with
methodologies and common metrics assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change and adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to the Paris Agreement;
(b) Parties ensure methodological consistency, including on baselines, between
the communication and implementation of nationally determined contributions;
(c) Parties strive to include all categories of anthropogenic emissions or
removals in their nationally determined contributions and, once a source, sink or activity is
included, continue to include it;
(d) Parties shall provide an explanation of why any categories of anthropogenic
emissions or removals are excluded;
32. Decides that Parties shall apply the guidance mentioned in paragraph 31 above to
the second and subsequent nationally determined contributions and that Parties may elect to
apply such guidance to their first nationally determined contribution;
33. Also decides that the Forum on the Impact of the Implementation of response
measures, under the subsidiary bodies, shall continue, and shall serve the Agreement;
34. Further decides that the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation shall recommend, for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session, the modalities, work programme and functions of the Forum
on the Impact of the Implementation of response measures to address the effects of the
implementation of response measures under the Agreement by enhancing cooperation
amongst Parties on understanding the impacts of mitigation actions under the Agreement
FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
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and the exchange of information, experiences, and best practices amongst Parties to raise
their resilience to these impacts;*
36. Invites Parties to communicate, by 2020, to the secretariat mid-century, long-term
low greenhouse gas emission development strategies in accordance with Article 4,
paragraph 19, of the Agreement, and requests the secretariat to publish on the UNFCCC
website Parties’ low greenhouse gas emission development strategies as communicated;
37. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to develop
and recommend the guidance referred to under Article 6, paragraph 2, of the Agreement for
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session, including guidance to ensure that double counting is avoided
on the basis of a corresponding adjustment by Parties for both anthropogenic emissions by
sources and removals by sinks covered by their nationally determined contributions under
the Agreement;
38. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to the Paris Agreement adopt rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism
established by Article 6, paragraph 4, of the Agreement on the basis of:
(a) Voluntary participation authorized by each Party involved;
(b) Real, measurable, and long-term benefits related to the mitigation of climate
change;
(c) Specific scopes of activities;
(d) Reductions in emissions that are additional to any that would otherwise
occur;
(e) Verification and certification of emission reductions resulting from
mitigation activities by designated operational entities;
(f) Experience gained with and lessons learned from existing mechanisms and
approaches adopted under the Convention and its related legal instruments;
39. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to develop
and recommend rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in
paragraph 38 above for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving
as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session;
40. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to
undertake a work programme under the framework for non-market approaches to
sustainable development referred to in Article 6, paragraph 8, of the Agreement, with the
objective of considering how to enhance linkages and create synergy between, inter alia,
mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, and how to
facilitate the implementation and coordination of non-market approaches;
41. Further requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to
recommend a draft decision on the work programme referred to in paragraph 40 above,
taking into account the views of Parties, for consideration and adoption by the Conference
of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first
session;
ADAPTATION

* Paragraph 35 has been deleted, and subsequent paragraph numbering and cross references to other
paragraphs within the document will be amended at a later stage.
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42. Requests the Adaptation Committee and the Least Developed Countries Expert
Group to jointly develop modalities to recognize the adaptation efforts of developing
country Parties, as referred to in Article 7, paragraph 3, of the Agreement, and make
recommendations for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving
as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session;
43. Also requests the Adaptation Committee, taking into account its mandate and its
second three-year workplan, and with a view to preparing recommendations for
consideration and adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session:
(a) To review, in 2017, the work of adaptation-related institutional arrangements
under the Convention, with a view to identifying ways to enhance the coherence of their
work, as appropriate, in order to respond adequately to the needs of Parties;
(b) To consider methodologies for assessing adaptation needs with a view to
assisting developing countries, without placing an undue burden on them;
44. Invites all relevant United Nations agencies and international, regional and national
financial institutions to provide information to Parties through the secretariat on how their
development assistance and climate finance programmes incorporate climate-proofing and
climate resilience measures;
45. Requests Parties to strengthen regional cooperation on adaptation where appropriate
and, where necessary, establish regional centres and networks, in particular in developing
countries, taking into account decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 13;
46. Also requests the Adaptation Committee and the Least Developed Countries Expert
Group, in collaboration with the Standing Committee on Finance and other relevant
institutions, to develop methodologies, and make recommendations for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session on:
(a) Taking the necessary steps to facilitate the mobilization of support for
adaptation in developing countries in the context of the limit to global average temperature
increase referred to in Article 2 of the Agreement;
(b) Reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support referred
to in Article 7, paragraph 14(c), of the Agreement;
47. Further requests the Green Climate Fund to expedite support for the least developed
countries and other developing country Parties for the formulation of national adaptation
plans, consistent with decisions 1/CP.16 and 5/CP.17, and for the subsequent
implementation of policies, projects and programmes identified by them;
LOSS AND DAMAGE
48. Decides on the continuation of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and
Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts, following the review in 2016;
49. Requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism to
establish a clearinghouse for risk transfer that serves as a repository for information on
insurance and risk transfer, in order to facilitate the efforts of Parties to develop and
implement comprehensive risk management strategies;
50. Also requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism to
establish, according to its procedures and mandate, a task force to complement, draw upon
the work of and involve, as appropriate, existing bodies and expert groups under the
Convention including the Adaptation Committee and the Least Developed Countries Expert
Group, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Convention, to
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develop recommendations for integrated approaches to avert, minimize and address
displacement related to the adverse impacts of climate change;
51. Further requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism
to initiate its work, at its next meeting, to operationalize the provisions referred to in
paragraphs 49 and 50 above, and to report on progress thereon in its annual report;
52. Agrees that Article 8 of the Agreement does not involve or provide a basis for any
liability or compensation;
FINANCE
53. Decides that, in the implementation of the Agreement, financial resources provided
to developing countries should enhance the implementation of their policies, strategies,
regulations and action plans and their climate change actions with respect to both
mitigation and adaptation to contribute to the achievement of the purpose of the Agreement
as defined in Article 2;
54. Also decides that, in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 3, of the Agreement,
developed countries intend to continue their existing collective mobilization goal through
2025 in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation;
prior to 2025 the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement shall set a new collective quantified goal from a floor of USD 100 billion per
year, taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries;
55. Recognizes the importance of adequate and predictable financial resources,
including for results-based payments, as appropriate, for the implementation of policy
approaches and positive incentives for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and
enhancement of forest carbon stocks; as well as alternative policy approaches, such as joint
mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of
forests; while reaffirming the importance of non-carbon benefits associated with such
approaches; encouraging the coordination of support from, inter alia, public and private,
bilateral and multilateral sources, such as the Green Climate Fund, and alternative sources
in accordance with relevant decisions by the Conference of the Parties;
56. Decides to initiate, at its twenty-second session, a process to identify the information
to be provided by Parties, in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 5, of the Agreement with
the view to providing a recommendation for consideration and adoption by the Conference
of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first
session;
57. Also decides to ensure that the provision of information in accordance with Article
9, paragraph 7 of the Agreement shall be undertaken in accordance with modalities,
procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 96 below;
58. Requests Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to develop
modalities for the accounting of financial resources provided and mobilized through public
interventions in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 7, of the Agreement for consideration
by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fourth session (November 2018), with the
view to making a recommendation for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session;
59. Decides that the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility, the
entities entrusted with the operation of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, as well
as the Least Developed Countries Fund and the Special Climate Change Fund, administered
by the Global Environment Facility, shall serve the Agreement;
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9
60. Recognizes that the Adaptation Fund may serve the Agreement, subject to relevant
decisions by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto
Protocol and the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement;
61. Invites the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Kyoto Protocol to consider the issue referred to in paragraph 60 above and make a
recommendation to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement at its first session;
62. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to the Paris Agreement shall provide guidance to the entities entrusted with the operation of
the Financial Mechanism of the Convention on the policies, programme priorities and
eligibility criteria related to the Agreement for transmission by the Conference of the
Parties;
63. Decides that the guidance to the entities entrusted with the operations of the
Financial Mechanism of the Convention in relevant decisions of the Conference of the
Parties, including those agreed before adoption of the Agreement, shall apply mutatis
mutandis;
64. Also decides that the Standing Committee on Finance shall serve the Agreement in
line with its functions and responsibilities established under the Conference of the Parties;
65. Urges the institutions serving the Agreement to enhance the coordination and
delivery of resources to support country-driven strategies through simplified and efficient
application and approval procedures, and through continued readiness support to
developing country Parties, including the least developed countries and small island
developing States, as appropriate;
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER
66. Takes note of the interim report of the Technology Executive Committee on
guidance on enhanced implementation of the results of technology needs assessments as
referred to in document FCCC/SB/2015/INF.3;
67. Decides to strengthen the Technology Mechanism and requests the Technology
Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network, in supporting the
implementation of the Agreement, to undertake further work relating to, inter alia:
(a) Technology research, development and demonstration;
(b) The development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and
technologies;
68. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to initiate, at
its forty-fourth session (May 2016), the elaboration of the technology framework
established under Article 10, paragraph 4, of the Agreement and to report on its findings to
the Conference of the Parties, with a view to the Conference of the Parties making a
recommendation on the framework to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting
of the Parties to the Paris Agreement for consideration and adoption at its first session,
taking into consideration that the framework should facilitate, inter alia:
(a) The undertaking and updating of technology needs assessments, as well as
the enhanced implementation of their results, particularly technology action plans and
project ideas, through the preparation of bankable projects;
(b) The provision of enhanced financial and technical support for the
implementation of the results of the technology needs assessments;
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(c) The assessment of technologies that are ready for transfer;
(d) The enhancement of enabling environments for and the addressing of barriers
to the development and transfer of socially and environmentally sound technologies;
69. Decides that the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology
Centre and Network shall report to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Paris Agreement, through the subsidiary bodies, on their activities to
support the implementation of the Agreement;
70. Also decides to undertake a periodic assessment of the effectiveness of and the
adequacy of the support provided to the Technology Mechanism in supporting the
implementation of the Agreement on matters relating to technology development and
transfer;
71. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to initiate, at its forty-fourth
session , the elaboration of the scope of and modalities for the periodic assessment referred
to in paragraph 70 above, taking into account the review of the Climate Technology Centre
and Network as referred to in decision 2/CP.17, annex VII, paragraph 20 and the modalities
for the global stocktake referred to in Article 14 of the Agreement, for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fifth session (November 2019);
CAPACITY-BUILDING
72. Decides to establish the Paris Committee on Capacity-building whose aim will be to
address gaps and needs, both current and emerging, in implementing capacity-building in
developing country Parties and further enhancing capacity-building efforts, including with
regard to coherence and coordination in capacity-building activities under the Convention;
73. Also decides that the Paris Committee on Capacity-building will manage and
oversee the work plan mentioned in paragraph 74 below;
74. Further decides to launch a work plan for the period 2016–2020 with the following
activities:
(a) Assessing how to increase synergies through cooperation and avoid
duplication among existing bodies established under the Convention that implement
capacity-building activities, including through collaborating with institutions under and
outside the Convention;
(b) Identifying capacity gaps and needs and recommending ways to address
them;
(c) Promoting the development and dissemination of tools and methodologies for
the implementation of capacity-building;
(d) Fostering global, regional, national and subnational cooperation;
(e) Identifying and collecting good practices, challenges, experiences, and
lessons learned from work on capacity-building by bodies established under the
Convention;
(f) Exploring how developing country Parties can take ownership of building
and maintaining capacity over time and space;
(g) Identifying opportunities to strengthen capacity at the national, regional, and
subnational level;
(h) Fostering dialogue, coordination, collaboration and coherence among
relevant processes and initiatives under the Convention, including through exchanging
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information on capacity-building activities and strategies of bodies established under the
Convention;
(i) Providing guidance to the secretariat on the maintenance and further
development of the web-based capacity-building portal;
75. Decides that the Paris Committee on Capacity-building will annually focus on an
area or theme related to enhanced technical exchange on capacity-building, with the
purpose of maintaining up-to-date knowledge on the successes and challenges in building
capacity effectively in a particular area;
76. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to organize annual in-session
meetings of the Paris Committee on Capacity-building;
77. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to develop the terms of
reference for the Paris Committee on Capacity-building, in the context of the third
comprehensive review of the implementation of the capacity-building framework, also
taking into account paragraphs 75, 76, 77 and 78 above and paragraphs 82 and 83 below,
with a view to recommending a draft decision on this matter for consideration and adoption
by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-second session;
78. Invites Parties to submit their views on the membership of the Paris Committee on
Capacity-building by 9 March 2016;
2
79. Requests the secretariat to compile the submissions referred to in paragraph 78
above into a miscellaneous document for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for
Implementation at its forty-fourth session;
80. Decides that the inputs to the Paris Committee on Capacity-building will include,
inter alia, submissions, the outcome of the third comprehensive review of the
implementation of the capacity-building framework, the secretariat’s annual synthesis
report on the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing
countries, the secretariat’s compilation and synthesis report on capacity-building work of
bodies established under the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, and reports on the Durban
Forum and the capacity-building portal;
81. Requests the Paris Committee on Capacity-building to prepare annual technical
progress reports on its work, and to make these reports available at the sessions of the
Subsidiary Body for Implementation coinciding with the sessions of the Conference of the
Parties;
82. Also requests the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-fifth session (November
2019), to review the progress, need for extension, the effectiveness and enhancement of the
Paris Committee on Capacity-building and to take any action it considers appropriate, with
a view to making recommendations to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting
of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session on enhancing institutional
arrangements for capacity-building consistent with Article 11, paragraph 5, of the
Agreement;
83. Calls upon all Parties to ensure that education, training and public awareness, as
reflected in Article 6 of the Convention and in Article 12 of the Agreement are adequately
considered in their contribution to capacity-building;
84. Invites the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement at its first session to explore ways of enhancing the implementation of

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Parties should submit their views via the submissions portal at <http://www.unfccc.int/5900&gt;.
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training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information so as to
enhance actions under the Agreement;
TRANSPARENCY OF ACTION AND SUPPORT
85. Decides to establish a Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency in order to build
institutional and technical capacity, both pre- and post-2020. This initiative will support
developing country Parties, upon request, in meeting enhanced transparency requirements
as defined in Article 13 of the Agreement in a timely manner;
86. Also decides that the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency will aim:
(a) To strengthen national institutions for transparency-related activities in line
with national priorities;
(b) To provide relevant tools, training and assistance for meeting the provisions
stipulated in Article 13 of the Agreement;
(c) To assist in the improvement of transparency over time;
87. Urges and requests the Global Environment Facility to make arrangements to
support the establishment and operation of the Capacity-building Initiative for
Transparency as a priority reporting-related need, including through voluntary contributions
to support developing countries in the sixth replenishment of the Global Environment
Facility and future replenishment cycles, to complement existing support under the Global
Environment Facility;
88. Decides to assess the implementation of the Capacity-building Initiative for
Transparency in the context of the seventh review of the financial mechanism;
89. Requests that the Global Environment Facility, as an operating entity of the financial
mechanism include in its annual report to the Conference of the Parties the progress of
work in the design, development and implementation of the Capacity-building Initiative for
Transparency referred to in paragraph 85 above starting in 2016;
90. Decides that, in accordance with Article 13, paragraph 2, of the Agreement,
developing countries shall be provided flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of
that Article, including in the scope, frequency and level of detail of reporting, and in the
scope of review, and that the scope of review could provide for in-country reviews to be
optional, while such flexibilities shall be reflected in the development of modalities,
procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92 below;
91. Also decides that all Parties, except for the least developed country Parties and small
island developing States, shall submit the information referred to in Article 13, paragraphs
7, 8, 9 and 10, as appropriate, no less frequently than on a biennial basis, and that the least
developed country Parties and small island developing States may submit this information
at their discretion;
92. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop
recommendations for modalities, procedures and guidelines in accordance with Article 13,
paragraph 13, of the Agreement, and to define the year of their first and subsequent review
and update, as appropriate, at regular intervals, for consideration by the Conference of the
Parties, at its twenty-fourth session, with a view to forwarding them to the Conference of
the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement for adoption at its
first session;
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93. Also requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement in developing the
recommendations for the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92
above to take into account, inter alia:
(a) The importance of facilitating improved reporting and transparency over
time;
(b) The need to provide flexibility to those developing country Parties that need
it in the light of their capacities;
(c) The need to promote transparency, accuracy, completeness, consistency, and
comparability;
(d) The need to avoid duplication as well as undue burden on Parties and the
secretariat;
(e) The need to ensure that Parties maintain at least the frequency and quality of
reporting in accordance with their respective obligations under the Convention;
(f) The need to ensure that double counting is avoided;
(g) The need to ensure environmental integrity;
94. Further requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement, when
developing the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92 above, to
draw on the experiences from and take into account other on-going relevant processes
under the Convention;
95. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement, when developing
modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92 above, to consider, inter
alia:
(a) The types of flexibility available to those developing countries that need it on
the basis of their capacities;
(b) The consistency between the methodology communicated in the nationally
determined contribution and the methodology for reporting on progress made towards
achieving individual Parties’ respective nationally determined contribution;
(c) That Parties report information on adaptation action and planning including,
if appropriate, their national adaptation plans, with a view to collectively exchanging
information and sharing lessons learned;
(d) Support provided, enhancing delivery of support for both adaptation and
mitigation through, inter alia, the common tabular formats for reporting support, and taking
into account issues considered by the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological
Advice on methodologies for reporting on financial information, and enhancing the
reporting by developing countries on support received, including the use, impact and
estimated results thereof;
(e) Information in the biennial assessments and other reports of the Standing
Committee on Finance and other relevant bodies under the Convention;
(f) Information on the social and economic impact of response measures;
96. Also requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement, when developing
recommendations for modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 92
above, to enhance the transparency of support provided in accordance with Article 9 of the
Agreement;
97. Further requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to report on
the progress of work on the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph
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92 above to future sessions of the Conference of the Parties, and that this work be
concluded no later than 2018;
98. Decides that the modalities, procedures and guidelines developed under paragraph
92 above, shall be applied upon the entry into force of the Paris Agreement;
99. Also decides that the modalities, procedures and guidelines of this transparency
framework shall build upon and eventually supersede the measurement, reporting and
verification system established by decision 1/CP.16, paragraphs 40 to 47 and 60 to 64, and
decision 2/CP.17, paragraphs 12 to 62, immediately following the submission of the final
biennial reports and biennial update reports;
GLOBAL STOCKTAKE
100. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to identify the sources
of input for the global stocktake referred to in Article 14 of the Agreement and to report to
the Conference of the Parties, with a view to the Conference of the Parties making a
recommendation to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement for consideration and adoption at its first session, including, but not
limited to:
(a) Information on:
(i) The overall effect of the nationally determined contributions communicated
by Parties;
(ii) The state of adaptation efforts, support, experiences and priorities from the
communications referred to in Article 7, paragraphs 10 and 11, of the Agreement,
and reports referred to in Article 13, paragraph 7, of the Agreement;
(iii) The mobilization and provision of support;
(b) The latest reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
(c) Reports of the subsidiary bodies;
101. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to
provide advice on how the assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
can inform the global stocktake of the implementation of the Agreement pursuant to its
Article 14 of the Agreement and to report on this matter to the Ad Hoc Working Group on
the Paris Agreement at its second session;
102. Further requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop
modalities for the global stocktake referred to in Article 14 of the Agreement and to report
to the Conference of the Parties, with a view to making a recommendation to the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement for
consideration and adoption at its first session;
FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPLIANCE
103. Decides that the committee referred to in Article 15, paragraph 2, of the Agreement
shall consist of 12 members with recognized competence in relevant scientific, technical,
socio-economic or legal fields, to be elected by the Conference of the Parties serving as the
meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement on the basis of equitable geographical
representation, with two members each from the five regional groups of the United Nations
and one member each from the small island developing States and the least developed
countries, while taking into account the goal of gender balance;
104. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement to develop the
modalities and procedures for the effective operation of the committee referred to in Article
15, paragraph 2, of the Agreement, with a view to the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris
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Agreement completing its work on such modalities and procedures for consideration and
adoption by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement at its first session;
FINAL CLAUSES
105. Also requests the secretariat, solely for the purposes of Article 21 of the Agreement,
to make available on its website on the date of adoption of the Agreement as well as in the
report of the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-first session, information on the most
up-to-date total and per cent of greenhouse gas emissions communicated by Parties to the
Convention in their national communications, greenhouse gas inventory reports, biennial
reports or biennial update reports;
IV. ENHANCED ACTION PRIOR TO 2020
106. Resolves to ensure the highest possible mitigation efforts in the pre-2020 period,
including by:
(a) Urging all Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that have not already done so to
ratify and implement the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol;
(b) Urging all Parties that have not already done so to make and implement a
mitigation pledge under the Cancun Agreements;
(c) Reiterating its resolve, as set out in decision 1/CP.19, paragraphs 3 and 4, to
accelerate the full implementation of the decisions constituting the agreed outcome
pursuant to decision 1/CP.13 and enhance ambition in the pre-2020 period in order to
ensure the highest possible mitigation efforts under the Convention by all Parties;
(d) Inviting developing country Parties that have not submitted their first biennial
update reports to do so as soon as possible;
(e) Urging all Parties to participate in the existing measurement, reporting and
verification processes under the Cancun Agreements, in a timely manner, with a view to
demonstrating progress made in the implementation of their mitigation pledges;
107. Encourages Parties to promote the voluntary cancellation by Party and non-Party
stakeholders, without double counting of units issued under the Kyoto Protocol, including
certified emission reductions that are valid for the second commitment period;
108. Urges host and purchasing Parties to report transparently on internationally
transferred mitigation outcomes, including outcomes used to meet international pledges,
and emission units issued under the Kyoto Protocol with a view to promoting
environmental integrity and avoiding double counting;
109. Recognizes the social, economic and environmental value of voluntary mitigation
actions and their co-benefits for adaptation, health and sustainable development;
110. Resolves to strengthen, in the period 2016–2020, the existing technical examination
process on mitigation as defined in decision 1/CP.19, paragraph 5(a), and decision 1/CP.20,
paragraph 19, taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, including by:
(a) Encouraging Parties, Convention bodies and international organizations to
engage in this process, including, as appropriate, in cooperation with relevant non-Party
stakeholders, to share their experiences and suggestions, including from regional events,
and to cooperate in facilitating the implementation of policies, practices and actions
identified during this process in accordance with national sustainable development
priorities;
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(b) Striving to improve, in consultation with Parties, access to and participation
in this process by developing country Party and non-Party experts;
(c) Requesting the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate
Technology Centre and Network in accordance with their respective mandates:
(i) To engage in the technical expert meetings and enhance their efforts
to facilitate and support Parties in scaling up the implementation of policies,
practices and actions identified during this process;
(ii) To provide regular updates during the technical expert meetings on the
progress made in facilitating the implementation of policies, practices and
actions previously identified during this process;
(iii) To include information on their activities under this process in their
joint annual report to the Conference of the Parties;
(d) Encouraging Parties to make effective use of the Climate Technology Centre
and Network to obtain assistance to develop economically, environmentally and socially
viable project proposals in the high mitigation potential areas identified in this process;
111. Encourages the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention to
engage in the technical expert meetings and to inform participants of their contribution to
facilitating progress in the implementation of policies, practices and actions identified
during the technical examination process;
112. Requests the secretariat to organize the process referred to in paragraph 110 above
and disseminate its results, including by:
(a) Organizing, in consultation with the Technology Executive Committee and
relevant expert organizations, regular technical expert meetings focusing on specific
policies, practices and actions representing best practices and with the potential to be
scalable and replicable;
(b) Updating, on an annual basis, following the meetings referred to in paragraph
112(a) above and in time to serve as input to the summary for policymakers referred to in
paragraph 112(c) below, a technical paper on the mitigation benefits and co-benefits of
policies, practices and actions for enhancing mitigation ambition, as well as on options for
supporting their implementation, information on which should be made available in a userfriendly
online format;
(c) Preparing, in consultation with the champions referred to in paragraph 122
below, a summary for policymakers, with information on specific policies, practices and
actions representing best practices and with the potential to be scalable and replicable, and
on options to support their implementation, as well as on relevant collaborative initiatives,
and publishing the summary at least two months in advance of each session of the
Conference of the Parties as input for the high-level event referred to in paragraph 121
below;
113. Decides that the process referred to in paragraph 110 above should be organized
jointly by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific
and Technological Advice and should take place on an ongoing basis until 2020;
114. Also decides to conduct in 2017 an assessment of the process referred to in
paragraph 110 above so as to improve its effectiveness;
115. Resolves to enhance the provision of urgent and adequate finance, technology and
capacity-building support by developed country Parties in order to enhance the level of
ambition of pre-2020 action by Parties, and in this regard strongly urges developed country
Parties to scale up their level of financial support, with a concrete roadmap to achieve the
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goal of jointly providing USD 100 billion annually by 2020 for mitigation and adaptation
while significantly increasing adaptation finance from current levels and to further provide
appropriate technology and capacity-building support;
116. Decides to conduct a facilitative dialogue in conjunction with the twenty-second
session of the Conference of the Parties to assess the progress in implementing decision
1/CP.19, paragraphs 3 and 4, and identify relevant opportunities to enhance the provision of
financial resources, including for technology development and transfer and capacitybuilding
support, with a view to identifying ways to enhance the ambition of mitigation
efforts by all Parties, including identifying relevant opportunities to enhance the provision
and mobilization of support and enabling environments;
117. Acknowledges with appreciation the results of the Lima-Paris Action Agenda, which
build on the climate summit convened on 23 September 2014 by the Secretary-General of
the United Nations;
118. Welcomes the efforts of non-Party stakeholders to scale up their climate actions, and
encourages the registration of those actions in the Non-State Actor Zone for Climate
Action platform;3
119. Encourages Parties to work closely with non-Party stakeholders to catalyse efforts
to strengthen mitigation and adaptation action;
120. Also encourages non-Party stakeholders to increase their engagement in the
processes referred to in paragraph 110 above and paragraph 125 below;
121. Agrees to convene, pursuant to decision 1/CP.20, paragraph 21, building on the
Lima-Paris Action Agenda and in conjunction with each session of the Conference of the
Parties during the period 2016–2020, a high-level event that:
(a) Further strengthens high-level engagement on the implementation of policy
options and actions arising from the processes referred to in paragraph 110 above and
paragraph 125 below, drawing on the summary for policymakers referred to in paragraph
112(c) above;
(b) Provides an opportunity for announcing new or strengthened voluntary
efforts, initiatives and coalitions, including the implementation of policies, practices and
actions arising from the processes referred to in paragraph 110 above and paragraph 125
below and presented in the summary for policymakers referred to in paragraph 112(c)
above;
(c) Takes stock of related progress and recognizes new or strengthened voluntary
efforts, initiatives and coalitions;
(d) Provides meaningful and regular opportunities for the effective high-level
engagement of dignitaries of Parties, international organizations, international cooperative
initiatives and non-Party stakeholders;
122. Decides that two high-level champions shall be appointed to act on behalf of the
President of the Conference of the Parties to facilitate through strengthened high-level
engagement in the period 2016–2020 the successful execution of existing efforts and the
scaling-up and introduction of new or strengthened voluntary efforts, initiatives and
coalitions, including by:

3
<http://climateaction.unfccc.int/&gt;.
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(a) Working with the Executive Secretary and the current and incoming
Presidents of the Conference of the Parties to coordinate the annual high-level event
referred to in paragraph 121 above;
(b) Engaging with interested Parties and non-Party stakeholders, including to
further the voluntary initiatives of the Lima-Paris Action Agenda;
(c) Providing guidance to the secretariat on the organization of technical expert
meetings referred to in paragraph 112(a) above and paragraph 130(a) below;
123. Also decides that the high-level champions referred to in paragraph 122 above
should normally serve for a term of two years, with their terms overlapping for a full year
to ensure continuity, such that:
(a) The President of the Conference of the Parties of the twenty-first session
should appoint one champion, who should serve for one year from the date of the
appointment until the last day of the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-second session;
(b) The President of the Conference of the Parties of the twenty-second session
should appoint one champion who should serve for two years from the date of the
appointment until the last day of the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-third session
(November 2017);
(c) Thereafter, each subsequent President of the Conference of the Parties should
appoint one champion who should serve for two years and succeed the previously
appointed champion whose term has ended;
124. Invites all interested Parties and relevant organizations to provide support for the
work of the champions referred to in paragraph 122 above;
125. Decides to launch, in the period 20162020, a technical examination process on
adaptation;
126. Also decides that the technical examination process on adaptation referred to in
paragraph 125 above will endeavour to identify concrete opportunities for strengthening
resilience, reducing vulnerabilities and increasing the understanding and implementation of
adaptation actions;
127. Further decides that the technical examination process referred to in paragraph 125
above should be organized jointly by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and the
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, and conducted by the Adaptation
Committee;
128. Decides that the process referred to in paragraph 125 above will be pursued by:
(a) Facilitating the sharing of good practices, experiences and lessons learned;
(b) Identifying actions that could significantly enhance the implementation of
adaptation actions, including actions that could enhance economic diversification and have
mitigation co-benefits;
(c) Promoting cooperative action on adaptation;
(d) Identifying opportunities to strengthen enabling environments and enhance
the provision of support for adaptation in the context of specific policies, practices and
actions;
129. Also decides that the technical examination process on adaptation referred to in
paragraph 125 above will take into account the process, modalities, outputs, outcomes and
lessons learned from the technical examination process on mitigation referred to in
paragraph 110 above;
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130. Requests the secretariat to support the technical examination process referred to in
paragraph 125 above by:
(a) Organizing regular technical expert meetings focusing on specific policies,
strategies and actions;
(b) Preparing annually, on the basis of the meetings referred to in paragraph
130(a) above and in time to serve as an input to the summary for policymakers referred to
in paragraph 112(c) above, a technical paper on opportunities to enhance adaptation action,
as well as options to support their implementation, information on which should be made
available in a user-friendly online format;
131. Decides that in conducting the process referred to in paragraph 125 above, the
Adaptation Committee will engage with and explore ways to take into account, synergize
with and build on the existing arrangements for adaptation-related work programmes,
bodies and institutions under the Convention so as to ensure coherence and maximum
value;
132. Also decides to conduct, in conjunction with the assessment referred to in paragraph
120 above, an assessment of the process referred to in paragraph 125 above, so as to
improve its effectiveness;
133. Invites Parties and observer organizations to submit information on the opportunities
referred to in paragraph 126 above by 3 February 2016;
V. NON-PARTY STAKEHOLDERS
134. Welcomes the efforts of all non-Party stakeholders to address and respond to climate
change, including those of civil society, the private sector, financial institutions, cities and
other subnational authorities;
135. Invites the non-Party stakeholders referred to in paragraph 134 above to scale up
their efforts and support actions to reduce emissions and/or to build resilience and decrease
vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change and demonstrate these efforts via the
Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action platform4
referred to in paragraph 118 above;
136. Recognizes the need to strengthen knowledge, technologies, practices and efforts of
local communities and indigenous peoples related to addressing and responding to climate
change, and establishes a platform for the exchange of experiences and sharing of best
practices on mitigation and adaptation in a holistic and integrated manner;
137. Also recognizes the important role of providing incentives for emission reduction
activities, including tools such as domestic policies and carbon pricing;
VI. ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUDGETARY MATTERS
138. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken
by the secretariat referred to in this decision and requests that the actions of the secretariat
called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources;
139. Emphasizes the urgency of making additional resources available for the
implementation of the relevant actions, including actions referred to in this decision, and
the implementation of the work programme referred to in paragraph 9 above;

4
<http://climateaction.unfccc.int/&gt;.
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140. Urges Parties to make voluntary contributions for the timely implementation of this
decision.
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Annex
PARIS AGREEMENT
The Parties to this Agreement,
Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the
Convention”,
Pursuant to the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action established by decision 1/CP.17 of the Conference of the
Parties to the Convention at its seventeenth session,
In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of
equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different
national circumstances,
Recognizing the need for an effective and progressive response to the urgent threat of climate change on
the basis of the best available scientific knowledge,
Also recognizing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those
that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, as provided for in the Convention,
Taking full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries with regard to
funding and transfer of technology,
Recognizing that Parties may be affected not only by climate change, but also by the impacts of the measures
taken in response to it,
Emphasizing the intrinsic relationship that climate change actions, responses and impacts have with equitable
access to sustainable development and eradication of poverty,
Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular
vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,
Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and
quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,
Acknowledging that climate change is a common concern of humankind, Parties should, when taking action to
address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to
health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and
people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women
and intergenerational equity,
Recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of the
greenhouse gases referred to in the Convention,
Noting the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including oceans, and the protection of
biodiversity, recognized by some cultures as Mother Earth, and noting the importance for some of the concept of
“climate justice”, when taking action to address climate change,
Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation, public access to
information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement,
Recognizing the importance of the engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance
with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,
Also recognizing that sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production, with
developed country Parties taking the lead, play an important role in addressing climate change,
Have agreed as follows:
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Article 1
For the purpose of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In
addition:
1. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9
May 1992.
2. “Conference of the Parties” means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
3. “Party” means a Party to this Agreement.
Article 2
1. This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen
the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to
eradicate poverty, including by:
(a) Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and
to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that
this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;
(b) Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and
low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production;
(c) Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climateresilient
development.
2. This Agreement will be implemented to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
Article 3
As nationally determined contributions to the global response to climate change, all Parties are to undertake and
communicate ambitious efforts as defined in Articles 4, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 13 with the view to achieving the
purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2. The efforts of all Parties will represent a progression over time,
while recognizing the need to support developing country Parties for the effective implementation of this
Agreement.
Article 4
1. In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of
greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country
Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a
balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second
half of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate
poverty.
2. Each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions that it
intends to achieve. Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of
such contributions.
3. Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then
current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
4. Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission
reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are
encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of
different national circumstances.
5. Support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of this Article, in accordance
with Articles 9, 10 and 11, recognizing that enhanced support for developing country Parties will allow for
higher ambition in their actions.
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6. The least developed countries and small island developing States may prepare and communicate strategies, plans
and actions for low greenhouse gas emissions development reflecting their special circumstances.
7. Mitigation co-benefits resulting from Parties’ adaptation actions and/or economic diversification plans can
contribute to mitigation outcomes under this Article.
8. In communicating their nationally determined contributions, all Parties shall provide the information necessary
for clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
9. Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with decision
1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake referred to in Article 14.
10. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall consider
common time frames for nationally determined contributions at its first session.
11. A Party may at any time adjust its existing nationally determined contribution with a view to enhancing its level
of ambition, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to the Paris Agreement.
12. Nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties shall be recorded in a public registry maintained
by the secretariat.
13. Parties shall account for their nationally determined contributions. In accounting for anthropogenic emissions
and removals corresponding to their nationally determined contributions, Parties shall promote environmental
integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of
double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
14. In the context of their nationally determined contributions, when recognizing and implementing mitigation
actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties should take into account, as appropriate,
existing methods and guidance under the Convention, in the light of the provisions of paragraph 13 of this
Article.
15. Parties shall take into consideration in the implementation of this Agreement the concerns of Parties with
economies most affected by the impacts of response measures, particularly developing country Parties.
16. Parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their member States, that have reached an
agreement to act jointly under paragraph 2 of this Article shall notify the secretariat of the terms of that
agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, when they
communicate their nationally determined contributions. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and
signatories to the Convention of the terms of that agreement.
17. Each party to such an agreement shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement referred to
in paragraph 16 above in accordance with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
18. If Parties acting jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration
organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration
organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization, shall be responsible
for its emission level as set out in the agreement communicated under paragraph 16 of this Article in accordance
with paragraphs 13 and 14 of this Article and Articles 13 and 15.
19. All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development
strategies, mindful of Article 2 taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and
respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
Article 5
1. Parties should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as
referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including forests.
2. Parties are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the
existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy
approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon
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stocks in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation
approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of
incentivizing, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.
Article 6
1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their
nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to
promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of
internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable
development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply
robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
3. The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve nationally determined contributions under
this Agreement shall be voluntary and authorized by participating Parties.
4. A mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development is
hereby established under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Paris Agreement for use by Parties on a voluntary basis. It shall be supervised by a body
designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement, and
shall aim:
(a) To promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development;
(b) To incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and
private entities authorized by a Party;
(c) To contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation
activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its nationally
determined contribution; and
(d) To deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions.
5. Emission reductions resulting from the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall not be used to
demonstrate achievement of the host Party’s nationally determined contribution if used by another Party to
demonstrate achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
6. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall ensure that a
share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article is used to
cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to
the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
7. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall adopt rules,
modalities and procedures for the mechanism referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article at its first session.
8. Parties recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and balanced non-market approaches being available to
Parties to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions, in the context of sustainable
development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective manner, including through, inter alia,
mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, as appropriate. These approaches shall
aim to:
(a) Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition;
(b) Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of nationally determined
contributions; and
(c) Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements.
9. A framework for non-market approaches to sustainable development is hereby defined to promote the nonmarket
approaches referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article.
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Article 7
1. Parties hereby establish the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience
and reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and
ensuring an adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal referred to in Article 2.
2. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and
international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and makes a contribution to the long-term global
response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and
immediate needs of those developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of
climate change.
3. The adaptation efforts of developing country Parties shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be
adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first
session.
4. Parties recognize that the current need for adaptation is significant and that greater levels of mitigation can
reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, and that greater adaptation needs can involve greater adaptation
costs.
5. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and
fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and
should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge,
knowledge of indigenous peoples and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into
relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
6. Parties recognize the importance of support for and international cooperation on adaptation efforts and the
importance of taking into account the needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly
vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
7. Parties should strengthen their cooperation on enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun
Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
(a) Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these
relate to science, planning, policies and implementation in relation to adaptation actions;
(b) Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention that serve this
Agreement, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge, and the provision of
technical support and guidance to Parties;
(c) Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate
system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decisionmaking;
(d) Assisting developing country Parties in identifying effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs,
priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a
manner consistent with encouraging good practices;
(e) Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
8. United Nations specialized organizations and agencies are encouraged to support the efforts of Parties to
implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5
of this Article.
9. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions,
including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:
(a) The implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;
(b) The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
(c) The assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally
determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
(d) Monitoring and evaluating and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions; and
(e) Building the resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic
diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
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10. Each Party should, as appropriate, submit and update periodically an adaptation communication, which may
include its priorities, implementation and support needs, plans and actions, without creating any additional
burden for developing country Parties.
11. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and
updated periodically, as a component of or in conjunction with other communications or documents, including a
national adaptation plan, a nationally determined contribution as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2, and/or a
national communication.
12. The adaptation communications referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be recorded in a public registry
maintained by the secretariat.
13. Continuous and enhanced international support shall be provided to developing country Parties for the
implementation of paragraphs 7, 9, 10 and 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 9, 10
and 11.
14. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall, inter alia:
(a) Recognize adaptation efforts of developing country Parties;
(b) Enhance the implementation of adaptation action taking into account the adaptation communication
referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
(c) Review the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation and support provided for adaptation; and
(d) Review the overall progress made in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of
this Article.
Article 8
1. Parties recognize the importance of averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage associated with the
adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of
sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage.
2. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall be
subject to the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement and may be enhanced and strengthened, as determined by the Conference of the Parties serving
as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
3. Parties should enhance understanding, action and support, including through the Warsaw International
Mechanism, as appropriate, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated
with the adverse effects of climate change.
4. Accordingly, areas of cooperation and facilitation to enhance understanding, action and support may include:
(a) Early warning systems;
(b) Emergency preparedness;
(c) Slow onset events;
(d) Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
(e) Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
(f) Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
(g) Non-economic losses;
(h) Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.
5. The Warsaw International Mechanism shall collaborate with existing bodies and expert groups under the
Agreement, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Agreement.
Article 9
1. Developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to
both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.
2. Other Parties are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily.
3. As part of a global effort, developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate
finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, noting the significant role of public funds,
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through a variety of actions, including supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs
and priorities of developing country Parties. Such mobilization of climate finance should represent a progression
beyond previous efforts.
4. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and
mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country
Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and have
significant capacity constraints, such as the least developed countries and small island developing States,
considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.
5. Developed country Parties shall biennially communicate indicative quantitative and qualitative information
related to paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, as applicable, including, as available, projected levels of public
financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties. Other Parties providing resources are
encouraged to communicate biennially such information on a voluntary basis.
6. The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account the relevant information provided by
developed country Parties and/or Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance.
7. Developed country Parties shall provide transparent and consistent information on support for developing
country Parties provided and mobilized through public interventions biennially in accordance with the
modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of
the Parties to the Paris Agreement, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 13, paragraph 13. Other Parties are
encouraged to do so.
8. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial
mechanism of this Agreement.
9. The institutions serving this Agreement, including the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the
Convention, shall aim to ensure efficient access to financial resources through simplified approval procedures
and enhanced readiness support for developing country Parties, in particular for the least developed countries
and small island developing States, in the context of their national climate strategies and plans.
Article 10
1. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in
order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
2. Parties, noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under
this Agreement and recognizing existing technology deployment and dissemination efforts, shall strengthen
cooperative action on technology development and transfer.
3. The Technology Mechanism established under the Convention shall serve this Agreement.
4. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology
Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to
support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 1 of
this Article.
5. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to
climate change and promoting economic growth and sustainable development. Such effort shall be, as
appropriate, supported, including by the Technology Mechanism and, through financial means, by the Financial
Mechanism of the Convention, for collaborative approaches to research and development, and facilitating access
to technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing country Parties.
6. Support, including financial support, shall be provided to developing country Parties for the implementation of
this Article, including for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer at different
stages of the technology cycle, with a view to achieving a balance between support for mitigation and adaptation.
The global stocktake referred to in Article 14 shall take into account available information on efforts related to
support on technology development and transfer for developing country Parties.
Article 11
1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of developing country Parties,
in particular countries with the least capacity, such as the least developed countries, and those that are
particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, such as small island developing States, to take
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effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and should
facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of
education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of
information.
2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country
ownership of Parties, in particular, for developing country Parties, including at the national, subnational and
local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building
activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting
and gender-responsive.
3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement.
Developed country Parties should enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing country Parties.
4. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through
regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on
capacity-building. Developing country Parties should regularly communicate progress made on implementing
capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement.
5. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the
implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the
Convention that serve this Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the
Paris Agreement shall, at its first session, consider and adopt a decision on the initial institutional arrangements
for capacity-building.
Article 12
Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public
awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with
respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.
Article 13
1. In order to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation, an enhanced transparency
framework for action and support, with built-in flexibility which takes into account Parties’ different capacities
and builds upon collective experience is hereby established.
2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to
those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities. The modalities, procedures and
guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
3. The transparency framework shall build on and enhance the transparency arrangements under the Convention,
recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be
implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid
placing undue burden on Parties.
4. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and
biennial update reports, international assessment and review and international consultation and analysis, shall
form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of the modalities, procedures and guidelines under
paragraph 13 of this Article.
5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change
action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of
progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’
adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global
stocktake under Article 14.
6. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to provide clarity on support provided and received
by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11, and, to
the extent possible, to provide a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global
stocktake under Article 14.
7. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information:
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(a) A national inventory report of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse
gases, prepared using good practice methodologies accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement;
(b) Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined
contribution under Article 4.
8. Each Party should also provide information related to climate change impacts and adaptation under Article 7, as
appropriate.
9. Developed country Parties shall, and other Parties that provide support should, provide information on financial,
technology transfer and capacity-building support provided to developing country Parties under Article 9, 10 and
11.
10. Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity-building
support needed and received under Articles 9, 10 and 11.
11. Information submitted by each Party under paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Article shall undergo a technical expert
review, in accordance with decision 1/CP.21. For those developing country Parties that need it in the light of
their capacities, the review process shall include assistance in identifying capacity-building needs. In addition,
each Party shall participate in a facilitative, multilateral consideration of progress with respect to efforts under
Article 9, and its respective implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution.
12. The technical expert review under this paragraph shall consist of a consideration of the Party’s support provided,
as relevant, and its implementation and achievement of its nationally determined contribution. The review shall
also identify areas of improvement for the Party, and include a review of the consistency of the information with
the modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 13 of this Article, taking into account the
flexibility accorded to the Party under paragraph 2 of this Article. The review shall pay particular attention to the
respective national capabilities and circumstances of developing country Parties.
13. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall, at its first
session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and
elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as
appropriate, for the transparency of action and support.
14. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the implementation of this Article.
15. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing country Parties on
a continuous basis.
Article 14
1. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall periodically take
stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of
this Agreement and its long-term goals (referred to as the “global stocktake”). It shall do so in a comprehensive
and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in
the light of equity and the best available science.
2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall undertake its
first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the
Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
3. The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined
manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in
enhancing international cooperation for climate action.
Article 15
1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of and promote compliance with the provisions of this Agreement is
hereby established.
2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based
and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial and non-punitive. The
committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.
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30
3. The committee shall operate under the modalities and procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement at its first session and report annually to the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
Article 16
1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to
this Agreement.
2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings
of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the
Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement
shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the
Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to
this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this
Agreement.
4. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall keep under
regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary
to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
(a) Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
(b) Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the
Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by
consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
6. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement
shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is
scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the Conference of
the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall be held in conjunction with ordinary
sessions of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as
the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
7. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris
Agreement shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement or at the written request of any Party, provided that,
within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least
one third of the Parties.
8. The United Nations and its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any
State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the
Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement as observers. Any body or
agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters
covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement as an observer, may be
so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers
shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.
Article 17
1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the
Convention, on the arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat, shall apply mutatis mutandis to this
Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by
the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
FCCC/CP/2015/L.9
31
Article 18
1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation
established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific
and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the
Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary
Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the
Convention.
2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings
of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this
Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with
regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing
a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional
member to be elected by and from amongst the Parties to this Agreement.
Article 19
1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those
referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the Conference of the Parties
serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement. The Conference of the Parties serving as the
meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall specify the functions to be exercised by such subsidiary
bodies or arrangements.
2. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement may provide further
guidance to such subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements.
Article 20
1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and
regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at
the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement
shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of
ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its
member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional
economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the
organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their
obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to
exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration
organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this
Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any
substantial modification in the extent of their competence.
Article 21
1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the
Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 percent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions
have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. Solely for the limited purpose of paragraph 1 of this Article, “total global greenhouse gas emissions” means the
most up-to-date amount communicated on or before the date of adoption of this Agreement by the Parties to the
Convention.
3. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or
accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force have been fulfilled,
FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
32
this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional
economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
4. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration
organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.
Article 22
The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall apply
mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
Article 23
1. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention
shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
2. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a
reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall
be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical,
procedural or administrative character.
Article 24
The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this
Agreement.
Article 25
1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided for paragraph 2 of this Article.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to
vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such
an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.
Article 26
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.
Article 27
No reservations may be made to this Agreement.
Article 28
1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Party
may withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the
notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this
Agreement.
Article 29
The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are
equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
DONE at Paris this twelfth day of December two thousand and fifteen.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.


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