When one travels around Washington DC the capital of the United States cannot fail to notice the NeoClassical character of her buildings that look like copies of the Parthenon and of the other ancient Athenian buildings. And this architectural style is not accidental but rather evocative of the Great Minds that built this Republic, through their adherence to the ancient Code of Philosophy that saw it’s greatest manifestation in the vibrant Democracy of the Golden Age of the 4th century BC in the Athens of Pericles. It is indisputable that the ancient Greeks gave us this “Architecture of State” that was defined by this Philosophy, but we also see it metaphorically in the “Four Columns” that we used to construct the House of our Western Civilization and the Nation State of these very United States of America.
Yet, through the Founders and especially Thomas Jefferson, the Greeks and the Romans form a couple of Millennia away — they also gave us our Reason of Being today: The Free Will, the basic Liberty that is the Freedom to Be, the very basic element of what makes us fully Human, and Christianity was the adherent of this Doctrine, that makes us very different than the ones that perceive themselves as slaves bound in other religions of submission like Islam and even worse slave creeds. And that variable ancient Greek custom that was later embraced as Christian and traversed the ages and conquered the Roman empire through the Book written in Greek — the Bible that is the most popular book of all times — is the true Free Will belief that constitutes the very Roof of our edifice we call our Republic and our Civilization that is the true Soul and the very “Home” of these United States of America.
This is truly our Reason of Being and our greatest strength as FREE PEOPLE to persist in the face of all odds having as our “Raison D’Etre” the free will of Man, that hidden force that allows us to live and progress as Free thinking, and freedom loving Human Beings. This is the indisputable universals force — recognized as such, all the way from the days of the philosophers of Democratic Ancient Athens, to the Enlightenment, and the reintroduction of Democracy from the Renaissance to today. And the thing with this universal Human Force the so called “Yearning to Be Free” is best manifest here in the United States of America and it will be maintained as long as Patriots are willing to fight for that “Right” and as long as they are willing to shed their precious blood to water the tree of Liberty.
And it’s up to all of us to make sure that we don’t screw it up — so that we can keep it until tomorrow, and for as long as we can keep this Republic steeped in our beautiful Experiment in Democracy, alive. And to that end we have Cato, and Cicero, and Socrates, the three great Stoics egging us on.
The Founders loved no other source of intellectual strength more than Cicero’s wise and virtuous writings on citizenship and Cato’s history. Especially the Virtuous Citizen of Cicero was the indispensable support to the debates that our founding fathers engaged as they debated and planned in order to establish the American Republic. The Framers of our Constitution and the Founder son our Republic engaged in this interminable debate about the kind of State they wanted to build because they were all rather intelligent and intellectually endowed with plenty of Gray Matter and dense space between their ears, inside their necktop computers we call brains, and thus through the cauldrons of intellectual fire, New Ideas emerged. Yet these new ideas had their origin in the ancient past and then the American Innovators offered drastic political innovation on top of that based on the many centuries of imagining what a great society would look like.
So this adoption of ancient Greece’s Democracy along with Rome’s Republicanism was indeed like the marriage of Cadmus and Destiny — all the more remarkable because challenges such as the pragmatic political theory of Machiavelli, the political upheaval of the Reformation, and the Enlightenment were all known to them, and yet they chose to ignore them during the gigantic effort undertaken towards the creation of this Enlightened Republic of the United States of America.
These innovative political theorists and practitioners, shied away from the early Reformation’s rejection of the use of pagan authors, and instead made the Greeks and the Romans Leaders and Authors of antiquity really relevant to the Western ideals of the day of the creation of the New Republic.
As always the proof is in the pudding, and from what we see to this day, this adoration of the ancient knowledge — served them rather well.
When the American founders attempted to articulate a vision of a good society and of an active life of virtue in politics, they turned in the same direction as Petrarch did over four hundred years before. Thomas Jefferson wrote in 1825 that the ideas of the Declaration of Independence came not only from John Locke and Algernon Sidney, but from Aristotle and Cicero.
In 1803, John Adams could admiringly quote Cicero’s description of the true public servant: “Such a man will devote himself entirely to the Republic, nor will he covet power or riches. He will adhere closely to justice and equality that provided he can
Indeed the four cardinal institutions of Western Civilization come from Greece. And the roof of our edifice, is this incredible belief in Freedom. It is almost a religious thing. And these are the same stone pillars that support our Neoclassical American Empire, as the same four principles of Civilization that the Romans made their own, as they took over from the Greeks. Our Justice System, our Logic & Rational Thinking that leads to Science and Scientific pursuits, our Freedom and Free Will enshrined in our Constitution and in our Religion too, and our Democratic principle of All men are created equal and have the obligation and the right to participate by always voting and by standing for Elections as Electors, as Tribunes, as Representatives, as Senators, as Consuls, as Magistrates, or as other office holders, even as Augustus — always having a single vote to offer towards the pursuit of honest representative government — from the people, by the people, and for the people. But above it all is the Liberty that is remembered as the Lady that greets us in the harbor of New York City holding her light aloft to guide us always and forever to this distant shore of Goodness and Godness.
Simply put, these ancient Philosophical innovations are the cornerstones that allow us today, to have a rood over our home while being Free Americans, and while living inside the Best Constitutional and Democratic Republic the world has ever known. And again these are: Justice, Reason, Free Will, and Democracy, all capped with Liberty as a Divine Right and enshrined as a uniquely human trait — only within our precious Christian Religion.
To recall, these five principles are the direct Greek descendants of the Innovations taking place in Athens for many years brewing in the underground caves of the hill of Pnyx, where a group of men conspired and dreamed for thirty five years with the dream of instituting a government of the People, by the People, and for the People. And these rebels came out of hiding and stormed the citadel of Acropolis and took over power from the Oligarchy under the guidance and the leadership of a strong man named with the nom de guerre “Isocrates” meaning Equal-State as a proto-Democrat (Greek =Democrates). Isocrates (no relation to the philosopher Socrates), saw that the institution of Democracy be given a structure that will allow it to persist against time’s erosive powers. And that was how this nascent experiment came to be the pinnacle of the ancient Athenian empire under the influence of Pericles as the best embodiment in public governance of Free people, of Free Will, and of Free Choice — all working together for a Free Government.
That these ancient Greeks bequeathed these lofty innovative ideals to the Romans, and the fact that all of the best Roman Citizens and the Rulers of the Glorious Age of Rome — spoke Greek. And not only spoke Greek but they had studied Philosophy and had also studied the Art of Oratory and Greek Rhetoric. Speaking Greek in the Roman Senate was a requirement and a privilege because the Romans treasured Classical Education as their most important educational tool, to help them advance into the world of Leadership.
Julius Caesar himself the first elected Emperor by anyone’s account, had studied Greek under a Greek tutor, in the island of Rhodes in Greece, for a whole eight years, in order to master this ancient art of speaking and leading the People, before he returned to Rome to begin his public service and his famous works of strengthening and enlarging the Roman Republic that in his lifetime changed to the Great Roman Empire.
Caesar was a truly Masterful Leader and he used the Art of Rhetoric to the advantage of his cause. A Greater Rome. His language was powerful and his use of the Art of Rhetoric emphasized the Future Glory of the Roman Republic and the Coming of the Empire of Rome. He always sought Justice of the People of Rome from the commonest Citizen to the greatest Patrician without discrimination and he instituted the beginning of the shared equity of all the people living under Rome’s border, in Italia, and by giving them the gift of Roman Citizenship as the “Latin Right” to all those outsiders living in conquered lands, a right that eventually led to the Full Roman Citizenship, under the reign of Emperor Caracalla some two centuries later…
Yet it was the same ancient art of rhetoric and oratory, that allowed for the opposite of Justice to sometimes occur. And it is exactly what the Greeks gave us plenty of instruction for — through their most eloquent tales of downfall of Great Men and Women, and through the stories of the lives of their Leaders, and the stories of their philosophers. And this is why they also warned us about carefully applying Good Free People’s governance in what was good honest government during the classical period of the Athenian Empire. A period of highly educated and honestly informed Citizenry, where Demagoguerry was punishable by ostracism. Yet this led to Rome’s demagoguery practicing professional liars of the day, and all the way to today’s fake PR newspaper hacks, to the Media pretenders, and all the way to TV partisan Journalists.
You’d be surprised to hear that the ancient Greeks had broadsheets of their own that didn’t look very different than the front page of today’s newspapers. The “papyri” were just what a public paper of record like the New Pork Times, and the Wall Street Journal are and it was what brought the news first thing along with the Public Announcements that were read form the papyri at the Agora of the ancient city.
And it was always the publisher of this morning Paper to be read at the Agora (Public Marketplace), under strict observance of the Anti-Demagoguerry laws and the publisher knew that if He failed to report the news and instead knowingly reported lies — they were to be liable to become ostracized and to have their property become the nationalized and themselves to have to leave the City for good.
And we all used to know Greek and Latin, and we all had studied the ancients carefully for some glimpses of wisdom, and we tended to remember these stories and some of us even could recite the Iliad and the Odyssey till the end of Life, because like all the well educated people throughout the ages, and those Greats coming before us, namely leaders like Julius Caesar, Richard the LionHeart, Winston Churchill, and today yours truly, we all studied ancient Greek language, the Iliad, the Odyssey, and Latin poetry, language, and customary laws, along with the whole cannon of the history of ancient Greece, Athens, and Rome.
And apparently there was a great and a good reason for that, and that’s also the same reason why it’s a bloody shame that our leaders and our public servants and our demagogue newspaper people are constantly failing us, since they stopped being properly educated and try to get through life with a half ass law degree or even worse… The reason why History and the Classical lineage of knowledge was always important is because there are no New Issues under the Sun. And if we have known how things played out i the past iterations of Historical precedent and if we can make the system analysis of situations work for us in that context — we are bound to be Great Leaders and be the kind of people that push the wheel of History in the right direction and eventually be the good leaders history is made off.
Because it’s not just that history holds important lessons, but it is that we are all products of our education, and the complex calculus of decision making is pivoting upon that platform of data rich brainscape. Knowledge is Power. Real deep knowledge gives us that special super power we need to execute our Leadership and our decision making daily.
Therefore our Classical Education is our number one investment in ourselves, and in Society, because the public sphere that we choose to serve demands the best of us.
And at the end of day, the very art of knowledge and wisdom is simply having read and deeply known in earnest the poetry of Homer, and the songs of Virgil, or the romantic poems of Lucan, and the stentorian writings of Julius Caesar on governance and on the Art of Public Service and Leadership. It is crucial to understand those primary texts as software for your brain entered there from a wise writer who lived through tough times and good times and who took decisions that were judged to be solid and judged to be correct in the historical narrative of the long ago time. Or you can read the words of an incredible geek, the Brainiac Julius Caesar and educate yourself by allowing this brain software to enter your mind. Do the same with those sane words from Seneca, or simply start getting familiar with the earliest of great Roman poetry of Catullus and then Virgil or even Cato himself. Make this effort to improve your Mind by entering the realm of the Brain of these Great Minds that are far superior to whatever our Day has got to share. That is why they are called the Classics.
Even in the Age of the Stupids, and of the Lost Millennial generation — knowing the Ancient Classics and delving deep into this esoteric knowledge, signals that we are still intelligent beings, and that we are still seeking wisdom, begging to be seen as relevant if not merely mentally alive in this boundless and timeless IDEA-SPHERE that is the great rational bubble “built” by ideas of the great men who preceded us, at the Greatest moments of History where the Greatest of the Civilized Societies that ever came into existence amongst Humans in this Earth of ours — thrived for glimpses of momentary brilliance.
That’s what you get with the Classics. Nothing else…
It helps to know that today’s America is a constitutional republic, very much in the mold of ancient Rome and it’s predecessor Democratic Athens and it’s Greek Athenian empire. The people who designed America’s governing ideals, institutions, and DNA — all were first imagined, designed, and bequeathed to us by a number of Greek and Roman citizens of yore. Yet the New American patriots and rebels who earned their Independence, and all of those other leading men of the New American Republic, had studied the history of Greece and Rome, as did the philosophers and writers and statesmen they took inspiration from, and those that these men took inspiration from, and so on all the way to the headwaters of Democratic Innovation of a government of the people, by the people, for the people.
And this created the unbreakable links of a continuous chain of Thought and Action from the past to today…
And tif you haven’t studied the Classics, this democracy we live in today, might seem flimsy, to many of you who have not studied the Greco-Roman civilization in any depth. True it sadly appears like a piece of fiction plucked from the past and laid down upon us. Or it just might feel like a piece of foreign machinery that you are supposed to operate without much integral instruction, and without an owners operational manual…
Well – if you’re not a mechanic, you wouldn’t try to fix your car without first trying to read some sort of instructions. In order to understand how our republic works, we need to understand the thoughts of the people who built it. We have to understand where they were coming from.
The Founding Fathers of the United States, and the Enlightenment philosophers they learned from — again, the people whose machine we are supposed to keep running — were obsessed with Greece and Rome. The reason why speeches from politicians keep referring to America as an “experiment” in democracy, why there is this sense that they were trying something daring and precarious, is because they lived under the shadow of Rome.
The common belief until the American founding was that democracy was destined to fail. A political system that promises formal equality can’t bear the strain of a system that will always have inequalities of status, however you try to legitimize them. In a true democracy, demagogues will win over the people with fatuous promises and showy acrobatics, and accrue enough power to destroy the very democracy that is the source of their power. (Stop me if that sounds familiar.) The reason why they believed this was because that’s exactly what happened with Rome. Hence the saying “A Republic, if you can keep it.”
If we know something about the fall of the Roman Republic, we know vaguely about Julius Caesar, about how he was a popular general who used his support within the military to effect a coup. The coup then led to a civil war in which the strongman who prevailed, Augustus, thought he would do very well with the powers Caesar had claimed for himself.
If we know a little more, we know that Caesar was not just a successful general, but a canny politician, who used his political victories not just to command the personal allegiance of the legions, but to build a populist political power base at home. We might also be faintly aware that by the time Caesar could attempt his coup, the Roman Republic was already exhausted, with a complacent elite fattened by centuries of military victory and the attendant spoils.
But what historians now refer to as the crisis of the Roman Republic had a deeper, class-based component. Like all republics, Rome understood itself through the prism of the myth of its own overthrow of tyrannic rulers and the establishment of a, ahem, more perfect union. Like all national myths, this was only partly true.
In reality, Roman society was divided into two classes, the patricians and the plebeians (words that still carry meaning today, although more faintly so); three if you count slaves, which you obviously should, although they were less active politically than the other two classes.
The patricians were the aristocracy. They were large landowners, in an era where the source of economic power was land. What’s more, while much of Italy was in theory public land, in practice patricians could farm those lands and keep the proceeds as if it was their own property. The fact that the patricians could rely on slave labor to farm this land made it even more profitable for them, even as it squeezed the plebeians out of the jobs they might have had farming. This fundamental equality between a landowning patrician class and the economically insecure plebeians is the most important thing to keep in mind about the history of the late Roman Republic.
What about the political system? Well, as is well known, Rome was run by a Senate, but the Senate was actually made up of patricians. To oversimplify, the Senate was like a legislative branch, which nominated the consuls who ran the executive. Did the plebeians not have a voice? The plebeians were represented by elected officials called tribunes, whose main power was the ability to propose legislation and to veto the Senate. The plebeians were most often wealthy patricians themselves, since it was the only way to be active in politics, but they were patricians with the common touch, and good tribunes, like good politicians, knew how to appeal to their constituencies.
In the late second century BC — decades before Caesar actually rolled around — this crushing inequality gave birth to a political crisis. Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, came to power promising to change things and reorient the Republic’s equality moorings to a better place. The Grachi brothers tried to implement various reforms to rebalance the inequality, including redistributing land and distributing grain to the Roman poor. And for a time they succeeded but their enemies were far too powerful and rebellious. And although the Grachi were popularly elected the wealthy and corrupt Patricians raised a Mob and started riots with paid rioters in order to attack the Grachi Reformers because they wanted to stop the Grachi reforms from taking away their ill gotten wealth and unjustly held popular powers.
Does this remind you of what Hillary Clinton and Podesta’s Corrupt Democrats are doing today against the incoming President Elect Donald Trump?
Are you aware that they are illegally using the money raised for the Elections by Democrats to incite Riots in order to stomp out our Democracy, by inciting rebellion of the stupid and blind masses against the Democratically selected New leader?
Does it compute in your head that these self proclaimed paragons of Democracy and liberal Socialism are destroying the very Democracy that they have vowed to protect?
Do you understand that spending campaign contribution money to paid rioters that through constant mob assemblies and violent riots, gathered through a Media monopoly controlled by few powerful Patricians and Oligarchic financiers like George Soros and a few Banks like Goldman Sachs — the insurgents of the splintered Democratic party are adding Riots, and Violence, and Vitriol, to the reasons for having an Emperor in this New Rome, the United States of America represent today.
And I am sharing this window of History of the ancient Roman Republic and it’s descent into Empire — only so that we might collectively become educated and informed enough so that we can arrest this slippery slope collapse of our Republic and avoid the fate of the original Grachi Reformers, in ancient Rome. And also so that we may regain the Peace and thus benefit from the Reforms of the incoming Trump popular administration today. Violence has no place in our political discourse within our Society today. End of Story.
And if you disagree with me and this statement of maintaining the peace — you are a fascist and her his where you need to keep on reading… Because the way it ended for the Grachi reforms and for the valiant Gaius and Tiberius leading reformers themselves, is a study of Leadership, and failure of it — in and of itself. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were a pair of tribunes of the plebs from the 2nd Century BCE, who sought to introduce land reform and other populist legislation in ancient Rome. They were both members of the Populares, a group of politicians who appealed to the average citizens and that opposed the conservative Optimates in the Roman Senate. They have been deemed the founding fathers of both socialism and populism. Tiberius Gracchus, born in 168 BCE, was the older of the Gracchi brothers. He is best known for his attempts to legislate agrarian reform and for his untimely death at the hands of the Senators. Under Tiberius’ proposal, no one citizen would be able to possess more than 500 iugera of public land (ager publicus) that was acquired during wars. Any excess land would be confiscated to the state and redistributed to the poor and homeless in small plots of about 30 iugera per family. The Roman Senate was resistant to agrarian reform because its members owned most of the land and it was the basis of their wealth. Therefore, Tiberius was very unpopular with the Senatorial elite. His main opponent was Marcus Octavius, another tribune who vetoed Tiberius’ bills from entering the Assembly and whom Tiberius had previously gotten removed from office. When King Attalus III of Pergamum died, he left his entire fortune to the people of Rome. Pergamum was one of the richest cities in the ancient world, and Tiberius wanted to use the wealth from Pergamum to find his agrarian law. This was a direct attack on Senatorial power and the Senate’s opposition to Tiberius began to increase. With his term coming to an end, Tiberius sought re-election as tribune for the following year. This was unprecedented and his opponents claimed that it was illegal and Tiberius was trying to become a tyrant. On election, violence broke out in the Senate between Tiberius’ followers and his opponents. Tiberius was beaten to death with wooden chairs and nearly 300 of his supporters suffered the same fate. These deaths marked a turning point in Roman history and a long-lasting association between violence and the office of the tribune. Tiberius was succeeded by his younger brother, Gaius Gracchus, who was also a social reformer. He was quaestor in 126 BCE and tribune of the plebs in 123 BCE. He is generally considered to be a more complex and confrontational figure than Tiberius, and he had a much clearer legislative agenda that extended beyond simple agrarian reform. Some of his laws appear to have been directed toward the people responsible for his brother’s death. Gaius Grachus renewed Tiberius’ land law and founded new colonies in Italy and Carthage. He introduced a law that no conscription of Romans under age 17 would be allowed and that the state would pay for basic military equipment. Previously, the soldier had to pay for his own equipment, which was especially difficult for the lowest census class. Like his brother, he also funded state-subsidized grain. Another law passed by Gaius imposed the death penalty on any judge who accepted a bribe to convict another Roman guilty. Gaius’ opponents tried to win away his support and he lost popular appeal by 121 BCE. After a riot broke out on the Capitoline Hill and one of Gaius’ opponents was killed, the ‘ultimate decree of the Senate’ (Senatus consultum ultimum) was passed for the first time. This law gave the Senate the power to declare anyone an enemy of the state and execute him without trial by a jury. A mob was then raised to assassinate Gaius. Knowing that his own death was imminent, Gaius committed suicide on the Aventine Hill in 121 BCE. All of his reforms were undermined except for his grain laws. Three thousand of his supporters were subsequently arrested and put to death in the proscriptions that followed.
The tribunates of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus began a turbulent period in Rome’s domestic politics, and their careers and untimely deaths emphasize both the strengths and the weaknesses of the tribunate. In the following decades, the tendency toward violence became even more clear as numerous tribunes saw their time in office come to an end with their deaths.
After a few years of continuous strife, Gaius Gracchus eventually committed suicide rather than fall prey to lynching by a mob raised up by the patrician consuls that wanted to stomp him down by force.
The failure of the Gracchi, did two things: The first was to re-establish the precedent of using force to settle political disputes. And the second was to entrench the class divisions at the heart of Roman society, since Rome’s complex system of checks and balances (plus the sheer obdurateness of the aristocratic class) couldn’t fix the problem. Of course, Rome’s aristocrats did not believe themselves to simply be defending their pocketbooks. Rome, after all, was one of the world’s most sophisticated civilizations, and its aristocracy was highly educated. It believed that in defending its privileges, it was defending itself from a, well, plebe, that was without a doubt uneducated and coarse, and held beliefs contrary to what it believed to be the values of Rome. In this background, Rome’s government, increasingly implicated in foreign wars and maintaining an empire, had to become more and more militarized and to raise taxes to keep up its expenses.
Because those conflicts were so deeply entrenched, Rome kept lurching from social to political to constitutional crisis year after year, decade after decade, so that by the time a popular strongman came along, the Republic was like a ripe fruit waiting to be plucked.
And that is how the Empire and the office of the Emperor was born…
In Rome’s history we have Roman Emperors and Empresses as rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding immense power over its citizens and military. The empire was developed as the Roman Republic invaded and occupied all of Europe and even Asia, and also great parts of the Middle East, Northern Africa and even Western Asia. Under the Roman Republic, regions of the empire were ruled by provincial governors answerable to and authorised by the “Senate and People of Rome”. Rome and its senate were ruled by a variety of magistrates – of whom the consuls were the most powerful. The republic ended, and the emperors were created, when these magistrates became legally and practically subservient to one citizen with power over all other magistrates. Augustus, the first emperor, was careful to maintain the facade of republican rule, taking no specific title for his position and calling the concentration of magisterial power Princeps Senatus (the first man of the Senate). This style of government lasted for 300 years, and is thus called the Principate era. The modern word ’emperor’ derives from the title Imperator, which was granted by an army to a successful general; during the initial phase of the empire, it still had to be earned by the ‘Princeps’. The term Emperor is a modern construction, used when describing rulers of the Roman Empire because it emphasises the strong links between the ruler and the army, on whose absolute support the ruler’s power depended, and does not discriminate between the personal styles of rule nor the separate titles in the different phases of the Empire.
In the late 3rd century, after the Crisis of the Third Century, Diocletian formalised and embellished the recent manner of Imperial rule, establishing the so-called ‘Dominate’ period of the Roman Empire. This was characterised by the explicit increase of authority in the person of the Emperor, and the use of the style ‘Dominus Noster’ (‘Our Lord’). The rise of powerful Barbarian tribes along the borders of the empire and the challenge they posed to defense of far-flung borders and unstable imperial succession led Diocletian to experiment with sharing imperial titles and responsibilities among several individuals – a partial reversion to pre-Augustian Roman traditions. For nearly two centuries thereafter there was often more than one emperor at a time, frequently dividing the administration of the vast territories between them. Yet it is important to remember that in the eyes of contemporaries the Empire was still one and indivisible. It is false to the ideas of this time to speak of ‘the Eastern and Western Empire’; the two halves of Empire were thought of as ‘the Eastern, or Western parts’ “Partes orientis vel occidentis.” However, after the death of Theodosius I (AD 395), the split became firmly entrenched between Western and Eastern Holy Roman Empire. The last pretense of such division was formally ended by Zeno after the death of Julius Nepos in 480. For the remaining thousand years of eastern Roman history there would only ever be one legitimate senior emperor, ruling from Constantinople and maintaining claim to the increasingly unstable territories in the west. After 480, multiple claims to be the imperial title of Augustus, or “Basileus” for Greek speakers, necessarily meant civil war, although the experiment with designating junior emperors, now called Caesars in order to indicate the intended successor, occasionally reappeared.
The Empire and chain of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. The use of the modern terms “Byzantium,” “Byzantine Empire,” and “Byzantine Emperor” to refer to the medieval period of the Roman Empire has been common, but not universal, among Western scholars since the 18th century, and continues to be a subject of intense historical debate today between Greek speakers and scholars and those readers able to speak merely Latin…
Donald J. Trump began his run for the White House by vowing to Make America Great Again. The pithiness of the slogan drove his opponents mad, but it worked. It communicated in just four words the reasons for his presidential campaign. When given the choice between Hillary’s self-centered “I’m With Her” and Trump’s “Make America Great Again” slogans, voters easily chose the Right One and went with Trump’s all inclusive Popular Reforms Theme of M.A.G.A. and gave the Trump/Pence Reformers a huge and overwhelming mandate to govern and root out the Corrupt Democrats.
Whether Trump will succeed in enacting policies that increase the standards of living for Americans is obviously yet to be seen. But judging by the response to his election victory, we know for a fact that he’s going to make a whole bunch of stuff great again — stuff that hasn’t been cool since 2008.
Ultimately M.A.G.A. became the winning slogan of the New Caesar of the Empire of the United States.
Make America Great Again is now the official motto of the majority law makers of the United States Senate and House.
I wish M.A.G.A. to you too.
How Donald Trump exploited the rickety foundation of the coalition of Islamists, Obama Social Democrats, Sanders loyalists, and extreme LGBT Gay and Transgender coalition under Huma, and crooked Hillary Clinton, is anybody’s guess, but am sure you all have gotten the Memo by now — that TRUMP won the Presidency of the United States under the banner of MAGA here and now.
All of which brings me to our current situation. Have you noticed the shrinking Middle Class under the last 5 administrations?
Have you noticed the extreme inequalities that have been cultivated in the American Economy with the favored 1% taking all the wealth of the country for themselves.
Have you noticed all the millions of Americans that have left the labor force completely, because they stopped even looking for a job and have gone permanently off the rolls of the unemployed?
Have you really seen that unemployment is at an all time high?
Have you noticed that people without college degrees are increasingly locked out of the economy?
Have you noticed that the Neo-Liiberal Bush Clinton elites are partying it up, while the globalized, so called meritocratic system rewards only their small elite entourage while leaving everybody else behind, outside, and exposed, to the rain without shelter?
Have you seen that the last three Presidents have been the worst President the United States had ever had? And in that deadly sequence they demoted our Republic to the level of a third World country?
Have you noticed that we only start wars that lead to retreat?
Have you noticed that we are always keen to accept Corruption as unavoidable in the reaches of government?
All of the reasons above and many others have led people to believe that maybe Now, is the best time for a Caesar to make America Great again. And that is what is happening in case you are wondering…
A New Dawn for America coming straight from new York. Its this or maybe it is at least time for the Gracchi to appear again under the leadership of Donald Trump and Mike Pence to truly make America Great again.
Because I think that there has been an increase in political violence, as is evident by the Temper Tantrum the corrupt Democrats have unleashed due to their electoral defeat, and that might lead to the army and the national guard, having to come out of the barracks and into the streets.
And while America’s economy is suffocating in it’s lackluster recovery bed, it could certainly be doing a lot better with a strong leader who balances the Military might of the United States with the Trading strength of our world beating Economy.
But the case for a Presidential Emperor parallels is there. Surely there may not be grain riots yet, but that is where Obama’s and Clinton’s miserable economic policies would surely lead to. only caring to feed well the patrician class, and offer wishful thinking of “Going High” and eating “Cake” if only they voted for Queen Hillary, and giving everybody cheap “Medical Marijuana” to medicate the pain of the plebeian class.
So the Social Class Extremes in these times of conflict are definitely at loggerheads. And the inability of the political and economic system too the Corrupt Neo-liberal Bush, and of the National Socialist Clintons, and their Globalistas Sanderites, to deliver an outcome that leaves both classes doing well kept intensifying the conflict of the Minds and Hearts of the American Citizens who sought succor in God and Country and correctly turned and voted for Donald Trump en masse.
Last Tuesday, America rejected a continuation of a corrupt and wholly crooked patrician Democrat who specialized in rigging elections and distorting the public will — and elected a tribune Magistrate led by a strong Republican.
Let that sink in for a moment now that you remember the story of the Reformers Gaius and Tiberius Grachus. Let us imagine how this played out when these Great Brothers tried to help the Common Man, the Plebeian, the Middle Class, and they were cut down while trying their best to stem the tides that led to the horrific seeds of destruction, the cancer of Corruption that grew to become the poison ivy that strangled the Great oak of the State.
Let us know that History intimately, and let’s be careful to learn the lesson, so that we can root out the weeds of Corruption today. Let us cut out the Cancer of Corruption that led to the destruction of the Roman Republic as it has always led to the loss of our Best examples Human Civilization has brought forth, so far.
Because it is up to us now to work hard towards bringing forth, some genuinely Gracchian reforms, and to drain the swamp in the hope that we can work well and fast this time around, before the retrograde Corruptors of the State take power all over again.
We have to absolutely do this together today and in this administration, because if not, I fear that we will see a New Caesar crossing the Potomac none too soon… and his name just might be Orange Julius. And it is up to us to ensure that we have a Republic and not an Empire — as long as we can keep it.
And so that we just recall the lessons of history, I offer you a list of Great Men that led our Historical antecedant, the Democratic Roman Republic and then the Roman Empire that succeeded it — through times of War, times of Progress and times of Peril…
And that is why the Roman army and the need of the seriously catastrophic times demanded the shift from a Tribune and a Senate, to a powerful Emperor… and indeed that was the end of Democracy but also the Rise of the Roman Empire. You simply can’t get an omelet without breaking eggs and as always it was the army that played “Chef” in this kitchen of Historical Transition, that brought forth a New Rome, under a wise and strong Leader whose name was Julius.
Ergo, the Empire was born. It didn’t just happen. It was designed and brought forth by the changing circumstances and the difficult straits of Historical necessity, as we experience today…
Do you care to double think now, who and what historical process is best served by the mobs engaged in constant rioting and by the confusion spreading out in our streets?
List of Emperors from Julius Caesar to Constantine:
Emperor and Time of Reign
Born: 13 July 100 BCE: Gaius Julius Caesar
10 January 49: rebelled against the Senate
9 August 48: sole ruler
15 March 44: murdered by mutinous senators
Julius Caesar Quotes:
“I love the name of honor, more than I fear death.”
“It is easier to find men who will volunteer to die, than to find those who are willing to endure pain with patience.”
“It is better to create than to learn! Creating is the essence of life.”
“In war, events of importance are the result of trivial causes.”
“I had rather be first in a village than second at Rome.”
“Experience is the teacher of all things.”
“As a rule, men worry more about what they can’t see than about what they can.”
“It is not these well-fed long-haired men that I fear, but the pale and the hungry-looking.”
“Men willingly believe what they wish.”
“What we wish, we readily believe, and what we ourselves think, we imagine others think also.”
Julius Caesar is considered the first amongst equals and in a sense he was the precursor to the Era of the Empire and certainly it’s first claimant to the throne since he was an Emperor in all but name. Yet under his leadership Rome was still a Democratic Republic led by the Senate. In due time the Rubicon was crossed and Julius Caesar became the Emperor in all but in name. And that was his downfall… but equally so the downfall of Rome.
After his assassination, he was followed by the official founder of the Roman empire Caesar Augustus who has the longest reign of 41 years starting from 27 BC to 14 AD. Born by the name of Octavian, he was given the name ‘Augustus’ by the senate as an honour for his great achievements. He went on to avenge the death of Caesar together with Mark Antony, before falling out with him. He defeated Mark Antony together with the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra and thereafter, together with the senate of Rome, created a new constitution for the great empire.
The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace that was known as Pax Romana or The Roman Peace. Yes, there were several wars at Roman frontiers for expansion and a year long civil war too, but after the succession of Augustus into the throne, the Roman world was free of any large scale warfare for more than two centuries. Augustus stood at the head of this empire as the emperor. He used his ruled wisely and built roads, aqueducts and buildings. Not only was Augustus the first, but he was most certainly one of the best emperors Rome ever had.
Augustus (Imp. Caesar Augustus) 27 BC-AD 14
Tiberius (Ti. Caesar Augustus) AD 14-37
Gaius / Caligula (C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 37-41
Claudius (Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 41-54
Nero (Imp. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 54-68
Galba (Ser. Sulpicius Galba Imp. Caesar Augustus) 68-69
Otho (Imp. M. Otho Caesar Augustus) 69
Vitellius (A. Vitellius Augustus Germanicus Imp.) 69
Vespasian (Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) 69-79
Titus (Imp. Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) 79-81
Domitian (Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus) 81-96
Nerva (Imp. Caesar Nerva Augustus) 96-98
Trajan (Imp. Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus) 98-117
Hadrian (Imp. Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus) 117-138
Antoninus Pius (Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius) 138-161
Marcus Aurelius (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) 161-180
Lucius Verus (Imp. Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus) 161-169
Commodus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus) 176-192
Pertinax (Imp. Caesar P. Helvius Pertinax Augustus) 193
Didius Julianus (Imp. Caesar M. Didius Severus Julianus Augustus) 193
Septimius Severus (Imp. Caesar L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus) 193-211
Clodius Albinus (Imp. Caesar D. Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus) 193-197
Pescennius Niger (Imp. Caesar C. Pescennius Niger Justus Augustus) 193-194
Caracalla (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) 198-217
Geta (Imp. Caesar P. Septimius Geta Augustus) 209-211
Macrinus (Imp. Caesar M. Opellius Macrinus Augustus) 217-218
Diadumenianus (Imp. Caesar M. Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus Augustus) 218
Elagabal (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) 218-222
Severus Alexander (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus) 222-235
Maximinus (Imp. Caesar C. Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus) 235-238
Gordian I (Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Senior Augustus) 238
Gordian II (Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Africanus Iunior Augustus) 238
Balbinus (Imp. Caesar D. Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Augustus) 238
Pupienus (Imp. Caesar M. Clodius Pupienus Augustus) 238
Gordian III (Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Augustus) 238-244
Philip (Imp. Caesar M. Julius Philippus Augustus) 244-249
Decius (Imp. Caesar C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus) 249-251
Trebonianus Gallus (Imp. Caesar C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus) 251-253
Volusianus (Imp. Caesar C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumianus Volusianus Augustus) 251-253
Aemilianus (Imp. Caesar M. Aemilius Aemilianus Augustus) 253
Valerian (Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus) 253-260
Gallienus (Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus) 253-268
Claudius II (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Claudius Augustus) 268-270
Quintillus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus) 270
Aurelian (Imp. Caesar Domitius Aurelianus Augustus) 270-275
Tacitus (Imp. Caesar M. Claudius Tacitus Augustus) 275-276
Florianus (Imp. Caesar M. Annius Florianus Augustus) 276
Probus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus) 276-282
Carus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carus Augustus) 282-283
Carinus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus) 283-285
Numerianus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Numerius Numerianus Augustus) 283-284
Diocletian (Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus) 284-305
Maximian (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus) 286-305
Constantius (Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Constantius Augustus) 305-306
Galerius (Imp. Caesar C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus) 305-311
Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus) 306-307
Maxentius (M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus) 306-312
Constantine (Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus) 307-337
Licinius (Imp. Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus) 308-324
Maximin (C. Valerius Galerius Maximinus Augustus) 308/9-313
Emperors from Diocletian to Romulus
A.= Augustus; C. = Caesar.
Emperor West Reign Emperor East Reign
Maximian C. 285-286, A. 286-305, 307-310 Diocletian A. 284-305
Constantius I C. 293-305, A. 305-306 Galerius C. 293-305, A. 305-311
Constantine C. 306-308, A. 308-337 Maximin C. 305-308, A. 308-313
Severus A. 306-307
Maxentius A. 307-312 Licinius A. 308-324
Licinianus C. 317-323
Crispus C. 317-325 Martinianus C. 324
Constantine A. 324-337
Constantine II C. 317-337, A. 337-340 Constantius II C. 324-337, A. 337-361
Constans C. 333-337, A. 337-350
Dalmatius C. 335-337 Gallus C. 350-354
Constantius II A. 351-361
Julian C. 355-360, A. 360-363 Julian A. 361-363
Jovian A. 363-364 Jovian A. 363-364
Valentinian I A. 364-375 Valens A. 364-378
Gratian A. 375-383
Maximus A. 383-387 Theodosius I A. 379-395
Valentinian II A. 383-392
Theodosius I A. 394-395
Honorius A. 395-423 Arcadius A. 395-408
Constantius III A. 421 Theodosius II A. 408-450
Valentinian III A. 425-455 Marcian A. 450-457
Petronius Maximus A. 455
Avitus A. 455-456
Majorian A. 457-461 Leo I A. 457-474
Libius Severus A. 461-465
Anthemius A. 467-472
Olybrius A. 472
Glycerius A. 473
Julius Nepos A. 473-480 Leo II A. 474
Romulus A. 475-476 Zeno A. 474-491
Anastasius A. 491-518
Justin I A. 518-527
Justinian A. 527-565
Justin II A. 565-578
Tiberius Constantine C. 574-578, A. 578-582
Maurice A. 582-602