Good branding is at the heart of any good business, but most of the branding advice you’ll get is about making sure that your brand remains consistent in your marketing efforts, or it gets improved…
Source: Boobs are your Brand
Good branding is at the heart of any good business, but most of the branding advice you’ll get is about making sure that your brand remains consistent in your marketing efforts, or it gets improved, if it’s already established.
However nobody talks turkey. Nobody tells you what happens if your business has never developed a brand, or if you’re just starting out, or if you are trying to build a business from scratch?
And even worse is that nobody tells you that even if you don’t think about it — you’ve got it.
Because your brand is like a pair of boobs. Everybody has them but not everybody knows how to make money out of them…
Think of the American Angel above, vs your office team mates that cover up their boobies in closed neck black sweaters that make them all look like the female version of Steve Jobs.
Better yet think of this: Kim Kardashian vs Hillary Clinton.
So since you have the boobs — men and women — you might as well use them unless you want to go unnoticed in business and in life, like a good wallflower.
And by boobs here I mean brand. Whether nobody knows your brand or not — it’s entirely up to you. Use it or lose it. And if you have it “Flaunt It”
And this is the primer on how to get to use them.
If you want to learn ask me here:
So go ahead and ask the Right Questions:
How can I become a great brand?
How can I make this brand sustainable?
What will bring value to my brand? Just what is my story, and how do I tell it?
What the hell is branding?
Branding is more than a logo. It’s more than a website. It’s more than a business card. It’s more than the colors and typefaces you choose to represent your company. Your brand is your voice in the marketplace, and it is your proposition for disruption. It is your opportunity to create something with lasting impact. It is how you tell your story, and it is absolutely key to your success and your survival.
Most entrepreneurs go to market not with a brand, but with an idea — an idea that can be so soulful and personal that it can be challenging to present and explain to others. You think everyone should intrinsically understand it, as you do—but they don’t. And that’s why you need to develop effective brand messaging.
One of the most frequent comments I hear is, “People just don’t understand us, our value and what we do, but we are absolutely the best at it.” That statement is a problem. Your brand is your story, and if you can’t tell it, then nobody will get it.
If you ever catch yourself making that sort of statement, take a step back. Because it is total BS. No one is that special. This is business, not Dr. Phil, and if you cannot communicate the value of what you bring to the market, the economy and the world, well then, you have a problem.
Branding is about knowing what you stand for and how you communicate the values and character of your product or service. As a company founder, this is not so much a design choice as it is a leadership decision. Your job as chief is to know exactly, concisely and in context what you stand for. You are the lone author of your story, your mission and your reason for being. How you tell it is your job.
Branding is about democratizing your product or service. This blog is meant to help you do just that.
The latter effort isn’t going to be easy, but it certainly is possible — even for a non-professional. Eventually, you’ll have to enlist the help of an experienced professional (either an in-house creative director or external marketing agency). But when it comes to establishing the core features and qualities of your brand, all you need is a little time, a little research and an in-depth understanding of how your company operates. Here are six considerations.
1) Identify your target market.
First, think about who your target demographics are. Children’s books and experimental novels aren’t written the same way; similarly, your messaging and imagery should be unique to one target demographic segment. Trying to target everyone is an exercise in futility — you might cast a wider net, but you’ll end up being less relevant to any individual within that group.
Instead, start out with one or two key demographics and slowly expand from there. Think critically about these demographics: Who are they? What do they need? What do they want? How do they act? What do they like? How do they like to be spoken to?
2) Learn your competitors’ brands.
Next, start evaluating your competitors’ brands. You can learn a lot about marketing in your industry just by studying these previously established entries. What do their logos look like? How are they different from one another? How do they talk to your shared customer base? It’s important that you not take any of these qualities and copy them for your brand. Instead, look at the motivations behind these choices, and use the qualities themselves for the next step of your process.
3) Separate your unique differentiators.
Identify what’s going to make your brand unique. It could stem from your business plan in general: For example, if you’re offering lower prices than your competitors’, you could emphasize that in your branding. Otherwise, find a way to make yourself stand out. Are most of the other brands older, more traditional, more conservative? Try for something sleeker, more cutting-edge and with a younger vibe. Are the other brands elitist and pretentious? Shoot for something more down to earth.
4) Define your brand as a ‘person.’
Once you’ve collected this information and begun some preliminary brainstorming, speed the process along by trying to define your brand as a person, rather than as a logo or a written voice. If your company were a person, what type of person would that be? Male or female? Older or younger? What kind of wardrobe would your brand choose? How would it talk?
Would you be happy to see it if it approached you as a stranger? What are its favorite foods and movies? The answers to these questions may never come up for customers, but they will help you come up with a better, more precise feel for your brand.
5) Apply your brand personality to multiple areas.
Think about how these personality qualities might translate to more tangible, practical areas of your marketing strategy. What colors will be associated with your brand? What might your logo look like? How will your voice come across in your content and other promotional materials? If you can, imagine your “brand personality” as a figure engaging with individual members of your target demographic.
How would that person approach them? Speak to them? Gain their trust and loyalty? These aren’t easy questions to answer, but they’re critical for establishing the core of your brand.
6) Get help.
Now that you have the core idea for your brand more or less in place, it’s time to enlist some outside help in fleshing out your vision. Unless you have experience in the graphic design realm or an in-depth knowledge of creative marketing, your best bet is to get aid from an experienced, educated professional. You can hire a resident branding authority (usually a creative director) in-house, or outsource your work to an agency.
It’s still important that you remain a part of the process and keep your entire team in line with your new brand, but the expertise of a dedicated professional can go a long way in securing a quality brand for your company.
Once you’ve established your brand’s look and personality, your responsibilities aren’t quite over. You’ll still have to ensure that your entire team is on board with the brand and using it correctly in every application. It’s also a good idea to check in every few years to update your brand, as needed. Stay consistent, and your brand will increase the visibility, authority and retention potential of your company.
In addition to all its other parts, your business plan should include a branding strategy. This is your written plan for how you’ll apply your brand strategically throughout the company over time.
At its core, a good branding strategy lists the one or two most important elements of your product or service, describes your company’s ultimate purpose in the world and defines your target customer. The result is a blueprint for what’s most important to your company and your customer.
Don’t worry, because creating a branding strategy isn’t nearly as scary or as complicated as it sounds.
Here’s how you do it:
1) Set yourself apart.
Why should people buy from you instead of from the same kind of business across town? Think about the intangible qualities of your product or service, using adjectives from “friendly” to “fast” and every word in between. Your goal is to own a position in the customer’s mind so they think of you differently than the competition.
2) “Powerful brands will own a word—like Volvo [owns] safety,” says Laura Ries, an Atlanta-based marketing consultant and co-author of The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding: How to Build a Product or Service into a World-Class Brand. Which word will your company own? A new hair salon might focus on the adjective “convenient” and stay open a few hours later in the evening for customers who work late—something no other local salon might do. How will you be different from the competition? The answers are valuable assets that constitute the basis of your brand.
3) Know your target customer.
Once you’ve defined your product or service, think about your target customer. You’ve probably already gathered demographic information about the market you’re entering, but think about the actual customers who’ll walk through your door. Who is this person, and what is the one thing he or she ultimately wants from your product or service? After all, the customer is buying it for a reason. What will your customer demand from you?
4) Develop a personality.
How will you show customers every day what you’re all about? A lot of small companies write mission statements that say the company will “value” customers and strive for “excellent customer service.” Unfortunately, these words are all talk, and no action. Dig deeper and think about how you’ll fulfill your brand’s promise and provide value and service to the people you serve. If you promise quick service, for example, what will “quick” mean inside your company? And how will you make sure service stays speedy? Along the way, you’re laying the foundation of your hiring strategy and how future employees will be expected to interact with customers. You’re also creating the template for your advertising and marketing strategies.
5) Get In the Loop.
Many companies large and small stumble when it comes to incorporating employees into their branding strategies. But to the customer making a purchase, your employee is the company. Your employees can make or break your entire brand, so don’t ever forget them. Here are a few tips:
6) Hire based on brand strategy. Communicating your brand through your employees starts with making the right hires. Look to your brand strategy for help. If your focus is on customer service, employees should be friendly, unflappable and motivated, right? Give new hires a copy of your brand strategy, and talk about it with them on a regular basis.
7) Set expectations. How do you expect employees to treat customers? Make sure they understand what’s required. Reward employees who do an exceptional job or go above and beyond the call of duty.
8) Communicate, then communicate some more. Keeping employees clued in requires ongoing communication about the company’s branding efforts through meetings, posters, training, etc. Never, ever assume employees can read your mind.
9) Your branding strategy doesn’t need to be more than one page long at most. It can even be as short as one paragraph. It all depends on your product or service and your industry.
10) The important thing is that you answer these questions before you open your doors, or at least you have these discussions with your team as you create and grow, and hopefully scale to the point that you can afford to buy the expertise, or built it in house, as we all know how to do inside the Startups.
Here’s to the crazy ones…
Here’s to those that bleed for all of us.
Here’s to Jesus freaks and assorted Crusaders.
Here’s to you and Me.
Here’s the best thought on how to Grow from “Thought Leader” to Actually Leading people into battle.
My young grasshopper — please do know that there are many doors you’ll need to pass through — in order to at least know how to Lead Yourself.
Then you might have some hope on how to lead others.
Start by learning how to take responsibility for your own work:
1) Deliver what you say you will, make it clear when you can’t, be organized, etc.
2) Next pay attention to how your work affects others on your team.
3) Don’t throw work over the wall but learn how to collaborate well.
4) Learn to do things that yield a multiplier effect for the rest of your team. 5) Pay attention to net-net outcomes.
And that’s enough… to be a reasonably better leader or manager of people than 99% of the titled people out there.
But some of us are Samurai material and want to walk on to the real Bleeding Edge.
So if you want to go further with the human leadership stuff, here’s how to lead your people and your team to the point that they will win time and time again.
Here’s how you become a team lead, and learn how to communicate “up, down, and sideways” well.
1) Know how your team fits into the larger goals of your organization, and it’s your job to align your team to those goals.
2) Communicate to your organization the needs of your team, so you need to understand them well. Do this one-on-one.
3) You gotta be doing some production work as a leader that leads from the front, but do not allow yourself to be on the critical path, and always know the flow of Team and it’s outputs.
4) Gradually you gotta teach others your tech skills, and your production activities so you can systematize the knowledge that’s buried in your head for the benefit of the organization.
5) In cases where you can’t fully remove yourself from a process as an active developer, at least optimize things as much as possible.
Again — here is a fork on the road to Leadership, because at this point, you can stop if you want. The world needs plenty of in-the-trenches leader servants, since most of the toughest decisions happen right here.
But if you want to keep going farther down this road of Leadership and you feel you’ve got the stones to be the Lion of the pride — Go for it.
Continue reading, but most important start practicing these self evident Truths.
Here’s to those bold enough to Lead their Industry.
1) Abandon your tech specialization in day-to-day work.
2) As you go into a more pure leadership role, you will no longer be close enough to a single project to micromanage its implementation details.
3) This is a good thing, because in a higher level of leadership, treating any one project as if it’s the core focus is dangerous.
4) At this level, your job becomes: How do I max out our communication capabilities, speed up our learning cycles, reduce $$$ risks?
5) There is some high level purpose for which your organization exists. Figure it out, teach it, and design processes that sustain it.
6) If you do work in higher-level leadership effectively, it is still profoundly technical in various ways. Businesses are complex systems.
At this point, you hit the hard part of the road because you’ve reached a plateau.
Decision time again on giving up operational control of lots of small decisions, and time to learn how to properly delegate to get to really lead people…
So what defines a leader?
In the simplest terms, leaders have followers who believe that those leaders will take them to a better place. People respond to the energy, passion, and ideas that leaders bring to a team, even if those leaders are relatively junior. Ultimately, leaders mentor the next generation, teaching the skills that will one day enable their proteges to replace them.
In other words, good leaders have credibility.
Building credibility starts early, before you’re ever in a position of authority. It has less to do with your title, and more to do with how you perform.
Below, are methods which can be utilized immediately to start building solid credibility as a Leader amongst all your colleagues and inside your industry.
1) Start with Hard Data — Otherwise You’ll Be Ignored:
Until you have credibility, people are unlikely to perceive you as a leader or treat your ideas as valuable. It’s a natural tendency for many people to instantly want to share their opinions when taking on new roles, but it’s not always helpful long-term. Good credibility is earned. If you want to appear credible, speak with facts before opinions.
Facts give you an opportunity to contribute productively. By outlining relevant market data or detailing product capabilities, you’re sharing true, relevant information. Fact-speaking will solidify your contributions and give credence to your voice. This in turn will lend credibility to your opinions and analysis later on.
To achieve this, spend ample time researching information that is likely to be relevant in your meetings. Learn about the products or services your company provides. When the time comes to speak up, you’ll be able to contribute in a way that adds value, without claiming an authority you don’t yet command.
2) Make Your Plan Clear to Your Team:
Acting impulsively is risky and can damage your credibility.
This is not to be confused, however, with taking initiative. When you work in a team, it’s crucial that you engage with colleagues and solicit their feedback. Developing a plan and executing consistently generates credibility. Learn to communicate clearly and see any mistakes as opportunities for growth.
Creating a strategy before you ask breeds initiative and organized tactics. Share these strategies with your team members and stakeholders. Shared plans allow you to articulate expectations with key partners and solicit their feedback, inviting them to feel involved in the process. Additionally, constant communication with all team members, shareholders, etc., is important for stability. Ideally, you will be able to tell them that the project is delivering strong results, but even if you need to explain what’s not working, and make changes, you have far more credibility to do that when you develop a strong plan prior to taking action.
3) View Your Company As Your Partner — Not As Your Employer:
In the modern workplace, we all collaborate with others. Establishing strong relationships with people in your team is essential to building credibility.
Make an effort to understand and respect the perspectives and motivations of the people you work with, and to explore the history and values of your company. Think about what you can give to others, and the organization, as opposed to simply what you can get. In aiming to benefit your employer and not merely yourself — you build credibility for leadership, teamwork, and drive.
4) Prove Your Experience Is Relevant, Or Don’t Mention It:
As an example, in the early days of cloud technology, many companies like DropBox, Azzure from Microsoft and Amazon all had to find fresh faces to work on this new industry. And understandably the fresh college hires feared that they lacked the experience to be credible salespeople for cloud services, because they imagined that clients would take one look at them and think that they were too naïve or inexperienced to be in such a responsible position. These people were reminded, that they had unique experiences to contribute, and the ones that believed it — succeeded in selling more cloud services than anyone else…
The most successful among those hired understood the distinction between relevant and irrelevant experiences. By framing their knowledge as advantageous to the company as a whole, they instantly became credible. You may not have as much professional experience as older members of your team, yet whatever experience you have, however short or alien to the task at hand, is valid. Reflect upon this, and relating should be easier and the exercise will make you feel far more confident.
This applies whether you’re a new hire, a CEO, or anyone in between. Negative self-perception can set in at any stage, and blind you to the unique value you bring to your role. Take the time to reflect on your strengths and recognize how others can benefit from your insights.
Because no Matter How High You Rise, Credibility Is Key…
And in order to be seen as a leader, it’s important to take steps to build your credibility.
This is especially true when you’re in a new role, regardless of your career stage.
However brilliant your track record, people will be swayed by their experience of you. You must show them that you’re credible before they will accept you as a leader who is capable of taking them to a better place.
This leadership imperative of honest results and data driven leadership — never fades, however senior you become.
Communication, Productivity, and Credibility are the basic part of the glue that holds your leadership together.
Without it, your ability to inspire followers will inevitably decline.
So just make sure you use daily all of the tactics described above.
Do this however tough your job might be and how challenged you are for time.
Do this instead of the more new age techniques like meditation and mindfulness or purpose searching and meaning harvesting that is for dummies.
Do this and not only You shall be recognized as a Leader but you can also expect to earn all the credibility you can eat.
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In Seattle’s Pioneer Square, same as in the Tenderloin in San Fran, and the Meatpacking district of New York — there is a junkie, a wino, a hooker, and an entrepreneur, all stationed around in every corner.
It’s like a Taliban roadblock, and if you escape one, there is no escaping the others. And the thing is that all of them are selling dreams. Dreams out of a bottle, out of a baggie, out of a business plan, or out of a pvssy. Either way they all are in the Dream Big, and in the Big Drama business.
And yes indeed, they all walk down the street at different paces, all day and all night long. And a new one is always taking up their place when they shove off to do their appointed rounds seeking their particular dreamscapes.
And if you look carefully — you ‘ll invariably see that all of them are always speaking to themselves, or talking to an earbud, or maybe having an interesting discussion with the voices inside their heads. Either way they prefer to look busy and gainfully engaged in some ethereal conversation — all the time. Of course the winos who suffer from the trash-talking syndrome known as Turrets, have the most interesting conversations out there, but the other ones are also not easy to follow…
And the scantily dressed sexy & over curved chick who’s talking to a John, while smoking a doobie, and looking around for a “safe” place to turn a trick behind a dumpster — is probably pitching her New StartUp. Amid the hassle and the hustle, further down the street and the alleyways, there is somebody who’s slipping some serious folding green cash to someone in a hoodie for a baggie of shit. That’s better than going to the wall to get some cash. This is hot commodity dealing and more cash exchanges hands between drug dealer and the “client” than most Startups will ever see in their entire lifetime.
Of course this could also be an investment from a hyper focused and hyper stressed out local VC to a budding entrepreneur who wants to be the next Suckerberg… and who dreams of nothing else but of connecting all of us in this uber-local and massively viral social network that will allow us engage in some new form of fornication through virtual poking — if only we could give him twenty gazillion dollars to build this fabulous new Mobile App that will kill it.
Really – Really Kill It…
Silicon Forest, Silicon Valley, and Silicon Alley, are all places where there is an entrepreneur, a dealer, a druggie, a wino, and a hooker, lurking in every corner. Nobody’s missing from this scene except the rabbi, the Catholic priest and the Virgin Mary.
Now the hooker we all know what she sells, and if you don’t know then this blog is not for you, and you should immediately turn back to your Mommy and ask for the pacifier.
As for the junk dealer — we also know what he sells and best stay away from him — but you are big boys & girls and how you find your dreams and get fucked up is your own business.
The Jesus freaks they also sell salvation but it’s difficult to use this salvation n the current lifetime so we reserve this in the compartment that smells of death and we only invest in it when we are thinking of mortuaries and funerals and cemetery plots. But till then we focus on more earthly things…
Like the new you-sit-at-home-naked-while-i-do-your-shopping mobile app that we get pitched about every week. Or the next dating up that will get your Pornhub addiction satisfied with a flashlight and a maximum dildo that is remote controlled through your I-phone in a smart looking Mobile App that allows you to vibrate wildly inside your panties while taking these boring company meetings — and nobody’s the wiser.
That’s why I remove everybody’s phone and devises in all of my meetings, in order to avoid the unintended female orgasms in the midst of the presentation pitches. Or when the troll demos are going on…
And this is the StartUp Entrepreneurial scene all over.
This is true of all the big Silicon hubs, around the world and especially in the United States, where only a handful of companies, are actually trying to do the real things that will have a meaningful impact on people’s lives. And even fewer are the ones that make the effort to built the strong organizations that carry a true vision in order to solve real problems, and advance human progress by pushing History’s wheels forward.
And then there are the other ones. The few nutters, the madmen, the totally crazy ones, who are audacious enough to want to put a dent in the Universe….
These folks are truly mad, and generally timid — so they go underfunded, and generally unnoticed. Because they are hidden from the glare of the spotlight of fame and fortune that often times shines down to the Kardashians amongst us and the crooks like the Elizabeth Holmes of Thanatos Inc. and the many Minnie Men of Steve Jobs, or Mark, or Bill, or Uber Kick the Can down the Street.
Now I have to ask you question:
How many startups define their mission just well enough to discover an avenue to revenue?
And how come most of them don’t even want revenue?
How come they just want users?
Because the current illogical thinking goes something like this: Always user acquisition trumps reason, because in Silicon Valley they say that users are better than cash when going in to talk to the VCs for another round of funding.
Most of these startups die within the year, and most people will forget their names long before then.
As for those Stock Options and under water promises — phooey goes the smoke form that pipe of medical Mary-Jane you’ve been smoking.
But if you ask the real questions and your honestly want to answer them — You’ll know that building any business is hard.
It is an all-consuming process, frustrating at best, and fraught with danger, privations, lack of sleep or personal edification, sacrifices, and loads of personal challenges.
And it comes as no surprise that when a founder is a Tourist, a Tramp, or an A-hole that is strictly “opportunity driven” it’s too easy to quit at the first bump in the road.
Yet when the founder is “mission driven” — he or she will do whatever it takes to make an impact in the market they serve, and will keep persevering whatever the startup trends of the month.
Therefore I encourage entrepreneurs to find real problems to sell to me and then go ahead and tackle these hard problems, even if it makes fund raising more difficult, even if they look like the man from La Mancha, and even if their life gets in danger when both he Girlfriend and the Dog leave them.
Now these are the folks I like. The Great Unwashed. They are the ones that are truly killing it. Because the other ones are far less likely to succeed and they present no competition to the driven and mad as hell Founders we back. We like the ones who are Crazy AF, and willing to show it.
I’ve been guilty of backing small thinkers too. Yes, I’ve made money from these Me-Too Mobile Apps. Yes I’m finding the Light belatedly too. Yes, I’ve launched my own products and services that were idea buyers of others and were there just to spin them off the the Private Equity boys for quick M&A activity. Yes, I’ve done every easy StartUp in the book, and they were indeed fun to build, and a great hoot to sell them off or morph them into a big company, or make an IPO run and a Billion dollar exit.
Sure all of these companies were received well by the tech community, by the good folks at Geekwire, by the other Silicon Valley folks that run the major tech blogs, and even by WSJ and Fortune, Forbes, and the other big “F” the Fast Company.
Yet for me the only “F” that matters is Focus. Say that three times fast: Focus, focus, focus — and soon you start sounding like an Irish crazy man from County Kerry asking for a fvck… but never mind.
And the chorus goes on, and all the analysts, the VCs, the Private Equity sharks and the millions of users were singing our praises all day long and vying to be the first to use our next iteration.
The front page of the Business section of the paper is a great place to be, same as the Forbes Innovation Summit was an interesting place to speak at and all the other Silicon valley conference like CODE and RE-CODE and the Google or the Apple shindigs. My ego was being stroked at maximum efficiency, and the swag kept coming. And throughout all that, I knew I was building things just because they were easy to do and the people would use them to gratify and ingratiate themselves…
Yet all that jazz doesn’t matter the least bit if whatever you are building makes no difference. If your Mobile App doesn’t improve people’s lives in a measurable way.
Don’t talk to me if you don’t have meaning in your life and your Startup company doesn’t have a purpose of being.
Raison D’Etre is all there is.
But I’ve had my Damascus moment and saw the Light.
Now I seek more meaningful things and reason that if you’re going to start a new venture — at least learn to care for whatever the fvck you are building.
Go out there and see the world and really observe. Seek instead of see. Go find some measure of meaning and maybe you’ll stumble upon a problem and a people, that you really care about.
Go ahead and focus solving that problem and only pursue that dream.
Even if the likelihood of success is slim, put your head down and go.
Making America Great Again has started in earnest.
This time around it is the Markets that are hitting record highs after the election of Donald Trump as the next president of these United States.
You might recall the scaremongering that was going on before the Elections lest the American people choose their President as a Strong Pro Free Market Capitalist Republican, instead of the choice of the Corporatists, the wet dishcloth sponging the behind of all the rich and powerful dictators of the world and of the marketplace, who contributed to her personal foundation.
And how can you blame them, when after the most anemic recovery from a deep recession / depression, micromanaged by the hapless Obama administration through the ministrations of a Banker-Wankers government — everybody was scared witless. Indeed we have experienced so many years of slowing earnings growth and little in the way of excitement for simple ordinary investors or even for the biggest ones, and certainly for all the Wall Street analysts who make their living by observing the Market swings — that we are all forgetting what it is to see a roaring market.
However since the elections gave us this New President Donald Trump, many Wall Street analysts and pundits are now very hopeful that President-elect Donald Trump will finally make things not just interesting — but outright GREAT.
Now we see a roaring market all over again.
Making America Great Again is no small potatoes and starting from the liquidity markets is a great place to give hope and money to the people.
And the recent Market expansion drives the point home top all those sour pusses out there that predicted gloom & doom from the get go about the Trump Presidency.
So when collecting data from the Goldman Sachs Group’s Analyst Index — a proprietary measure of growth across different sectors of the S&P 500 — the firm included a question this month, on what the election of Donald Trump might mean for the industries covered by those surveyed.
Turns out, all the analysts at Goldmans are rather optimistic.
“This month, analysts commented on how the results of the U.S. election will affect companies in their respective sectors,” the team of Goldman Sachs analysts wrote in their new note. “While their responses suggest that there is still uncertainty about the sector-level impact, the majority of sectors are anticipating favorable effects,” they say, adding that expectations of lower tax rates and economic stimulus are among key reasons for the favorable outlook.
Goldman Sachs certainly isn’t the first to hail the potential benefits of a Trump presidency. The quantitative analysts at JP Morgan Chase and Co, also wrote that many of Trump’s policies would be “pro-growth,” even while uncertainty about specifics remains high. They further wrote this week that if the campaign promises that have the potential to stimulate growth get implemented, the S&P 500 could see as much as $20 in additional earnings-per-share growth over the next few years.
Still, “it is difficult to overstate just how wide the range of possible policy outcomes is currently,” they said. “While the majority of President-elect Trump’s policies are pro-growth for equities, parts of his more populist rhetoric could significantly disrupt the economy,” they add, pointing to the promise of stricter trade policies. The strategists’ skepticism that all the former real-estate mogul’s campaign promises will go through means they stop short of incorporating the effects into their base-case earnings forecasts.
Of course there’s no suggestion that all industries will benefit alike: Goldman’s analysts expect some to miss out, and some even to suffer under Trump. Some respondents said they expected the election outcome to weigh negatively on their sectors; among those were autos, aerospace, clean energy, and agribusiness. Concerns regarding the outlook for business activity stem from potentially more restrictive trade policy, notably for clean energy and agricultural industries, and higher inflationary pressures…
So all of the Goldman analysts surveyed are optimistic, and so are the majority of the independent dealers, brokers, and market makers.
Yet as always I also tend to believe the optimistic scenario here & now, because for the next 3-4 years we are going to be in a grateful mode, that will surely keep growing jobs and incomes in America.
That’s How We Make America Great Again.
Giving Confidence to the People and Keeping the jobs at Home.
And God willing with Trump winning a second term — then we can balance the books too.
Where did Thanksgiving really come from?
It’s a relatively simple civics question, but an episode of American history that, sadly, few can answer.
As we gather together to celebrate this most reverent and solemn holiday, I hope this short piece informs and enlightens enough, so that you share it far and wide, because this is something that all Americans need to know.
Thanksgiving is a uniquely American holiday but one whose origins we’ve lost sight of.
Children’s stories of pilgrims and Indians having a meal together are nice, but not accurate. Much like Santa Claus we have a hard time believing past the age of three, although we know that there is some basic truth to the stories of Saint Nickolas, they are far from the man living on a North Pole village, and all year long manufacturing toys that are then dropped as gifts down chimneys from a flying sled pulled by flying reindeer…
So are the romantic stories about the Good Indians and the Great pilgrims, who were starving and found each other as help to further their mutual designs, so they can survive, left alone to live and prosper so they can continue to fight another day.
In reality this Thanks-Giving holiday was solidified as an annual event as a result of a Presidential Proclamation issued by our nation’s 16th president, Abraham Lincoln, on October 3rd, 1863.
In decreeing that as a nation we set aside the final Thursday of November as a “National Day of thanksgiving and praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the heaven.”
This is how Lincoln visualized and created, and then oversaw America’s first Day of Thanksgiving.
Lincoln’s Presidential Proclamation is brief, just a few paragraphs, and is one of the most beautiful literary works you will ever read and behold.
And in case you’ve never read it — you have no idea what a true American jewel you are missing.
The entire thing, Presidential Proclamation #106, can be found as written in Lincoln’s original pen on our National Archives website here: Proclamation 106 – Thanksgiving Day, 1863.
For ease of reading, I have reproduced that document below. If you have read it, I hope you’ll re-read and share it with family and loved ones this week. I read this amazing, heartfelt piece of American history every year and every year ask the same question – what chance would this great man have of being elected today?
On behalf of myself and of the Lincoln party, I would like to offer my blessings and sincere wishes, for a Happy Thanksgiving to One and All.
May the day and the hour remind us all of what we are Grateful for, in this Life of ours.
Thanksgiving is a time to be grateful.
Being Grateful is like having an Open Heart – a supple heart that allows all that is good, and all that is great, to come inside.
Because sometimes we just have to be wise enough to open up, to go with the flow, awaiting without expectation, without letting up your work, always allowing for good things to come to us.
In fact we have to put our trust in life and let the current of life carry us on to the big river that will lead us to the Ocean where we all shall meet again…
That doesn’t mean we should take our focus off where we’re going, or that we should stop swimming hard. If anything trust in God and keep up with our hand over hand in continuous strokes and keep our feet pushing…
And in our Public Life we need to be always swimming with the flow if we want to get quality jobs for the American people.
We need quality jobs and that is what got Trump the victory before anything else. Trump won the White House addressing our need for quality jobs.
Good jobs for Good People.
Not the crappy Walmart or Amazon stocker, warehouse kind of jobs, but QUALITY JOBS that fill houses in middle class streets of cities and towns full of happy people.
And on the basis of that promise more than anything else, Donald Trump an astute observer of reality, and a keen reader of the public sentiment, came into the White House for a sea change.
Of course many others have spoken about it before Trump, because it is hardly a secret, or an original observation, and in fact Trump’s very predecessor in the White House, a man best remembered as Barack Obama, the husband of Michelle — had made this case for quality jobs back in 2010. And then he went back to puffing his medical maryjane and allowed the wall street corporate lobbyists to translate this all too human desire for good jobs to the Franken Trade Agreement called TPP and TTPI that actually would kill almost all the American Quality Jobs in exchange for a Global Scheme of imaginary surpluses that would turn Americans into beggars same as all the other 6 Billion beggars around the Globe living on $2 a day or less.
Clearly Obama’s pitch and tone are far different than Trump’s, who is focused on fixing all the shortfalls in the nation’s trading relationships by tearing up the old Democrat and Globalization induced unbalanced so called free-trade deals and starting over from a clean slate.
If you look for specifics, Michelle’s Obama had called in his 2010 State of the Union address for doubling exports by the end of 2014. This, he said, would create 2 million jobs, and they’d mostly be good-paying jobs in manufacturing. In other words, it might have made America great again, but of course it didn’t because in the White House, they were all busy French kissing their doobies.
Logical trade experts who questioned Obama’s plan, noting that such a dramatic change in a short period of time would require disruptive changes in exchange rates between the United States and its trading partners — were shunted aside and shut down. The cloudy thinking of the Michelle Obama administration went on to say that this method would be punishing those US companies operating overseas, and making untaxed profits keeping them abroad, and therefore it would be counterproductive for the expensive lobbyists of the scofflaws. And they further scared Michelle’s little boy in chief, by claiming that if we were to engage in “Buy American” incentives, we would invite retaliatory measures by China and others. So the big pussy in chief, went back to hiding in his cloud of phat oily smoke — inhaling deep on his doobie — and thus any measure of change towards creating quality jobs — went up … in smoke.
All clearly thinking and logically imbued human beings looking at those over the top Obama manifestations, thought that these guys must be smoking something really good. And probably something rather powerful. Something that was probably illegal.
And they were right.
The Obamas were puffers of excellent quality weed, and thus the Clear Thinkers were justified.
By the end of 2014, US exports had risen just 28.2% compared with 2010 levels, according to Census Bureau data. That was far short of Obama’s goal, which was 100% growth. Even exports of services, which included tourists traveling to the United States, just rose by 31.9%. Exports of goods & products manufactured in the United States, were up just 26.6%. And in fact US exports have actually declined since then, with the pace of exports through the first 10 months of 2016 just 8.3% higher than during the same period in 2010.
So where are the jobs?
Forget Quality Jobs. We are now fighting for jobs of any kind…
Of course the one thing that frustrated Obama’s goal for exports was the continuously and artificially strengthening dollar —- something the president can’t really control, and perhaps shouldn’t even try to do although we know that our major trading partners are rigging the game to their advantage. When the Chinese drop the value of the Yuan drastically in order to sell more plastic bathtub toys and weapons to the world — the dollar appreciates sharply against the Reminmbi and by a snow gal effect against all the other currencies. Thus by starting in 2014, as the Federal Reserve began to wind down its aggressive monetary stimulus plans and investors anticipated higher interest rates in the United States, the dollar strengthened and American exports became more expensive in comparison to other nation’s product and thus our jobs tended to decline. Imports became cheaper, and the trend became self feeding on a never ending loop, that took jobs away from America instead.
Imports have risen by the same portion that exports have fallen since 2010, which means the overall trade deficit of $500 billion at the end of 2015 is now the same as it was in 2010 and growing.
Donald Trump, correctly saw this and promised that as the incoming Republican President, he will hammer away at America’s trade deficit during his Administration, correctly saying that China and Mexico have been stealing American jobs. If his smart appeal for Quality Jobs for Americans, works in the same way that brought out the masses of voters in the Rust Belt states — we are in a good way going forward.
And as you can see in all the states where Quality Jobs have evaporated, such as Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Ohio, who have struggled to hold onto blue collar jobs that have helped put Trump over the top in these elections — they are going to be the biggest beneficiaries of Trump’s Trade Imbalance Correctional Policy.
The shortfall of good blue-collar jobs—several has been seen but not spoken for. It was observed by many smart economists, ordinary workers out of a job, and regular people for many years. But nobody from the Clinton or the Bush administration, or even the Michelle Obama presidency had bothered to do anything about it yet. The earlier we address trade imbalances — the earlier we can fix them. But if they are left unchallenged — they get to fester and become cantankerous cancer sores.
So had Obama or anyone else before him bothered to actually create some quality jobs, we might not have been in today’s dire straits.
Still the lesson shouldn’t get lost on us.
Because now, the failure of Obama’s and his predecessor’s export plans should serve as a well read cautionary tale for incoming President Trump too.
But above all, it should serve us a lesson to us.
Do what you promise like a man and not like a pussy…
The incoming president says he’ll “get tough” with trade partners like China and Mexico, negotiating new terms that are more favorable to the United States.
His overall goal is to create 25 million new jobs within a decade. But there’s no reason to think Trump will be any more successful than Obama at manipulating an immensely complex part of the global economy to America’s advantage.
Presidents tend to come into office thinking they can pull the levers of the economy more effectively than their predecessors.
They often leave chastened. And Trump has promised a lot more than those who came before him — but something tells me that he can and he will deliver on all of his promises.
That little something is not a little birdie but the rising and record breaking American stockmarket that has seen and has conquered the highest peaks, ever.
And that simply on the news of Trump coming in as the New President.
Imagine what will happen when he actually takes the reins of power…
When one travels around Washington DC the capital of the United States cannot fail to notice the NeoClassical character of her buildings that look like copies of the Parthenon and of the other ancient Athenian buildings. And this architectural style is not accidental but rather evocative of the Great Minds that built this Republic, through their adherence to the ancient Code of Philosophy that saw it’s greatest manifestation in the vibrant Democracy of the Golden Age of the 4th century BC in the Athens of Pericles. It is indisputable that the ancient Greeks gave us this “Architecture of State” that was defined by this Philosophy, but we also see it metaphorically in the “Four Columns” that we used to construct the House of our Western Civilization and the Nation State of these very United States of America.
Yet, through the Founders and especially Thomas Jefferson, the Greeks and the Romans form a couple of Millennia away — they also gave us our Reason of Being today: The Free Will, the basic Liberty that is the Freedom to Be, the very basic element of what makes us fully Human, and Christianity was the adherent of this Doctrine, that makes us very different than the ones that perceive themselves as slaves bound in other religions of submission like Islam and even worse slave creeds. And that variable ancient Greek custom that was later embraced as Christian and traversed the ages and conquered the Roman empire through the Book written in Greek — the Bible that is the most popular book of all times — is the true Free Will belief that constitutes the very Roof of our edifice we call our Republic and our Civilization that is the true Soul and the very “Home” of these United States of America.
This is truly our Reason of Being and our greatest strength as FREE PEOPLE to persist in the face of all odds having as our “Raison D’Etre” the free will of Man, that hidden force that allows us to live and progress as Free thinking, and freedom loving Human Beings. This is the indisputable universals force — recognized as such, all the way from the days of the philosophers of Democratic Ancient Athens, to the Enlightenment, and the reintroduction of Democracy from the Renaissance to today. And the thing with this universal Human Force the so called “Yearning to Be Free” is best manifest here in the United States of America and it will be maintained as long as Patriots are willing to fight for that “Right” and as long as they are willing to shed their precious blood to water the tree of Liberty.
And it’s up to all of us to make sure that we don’t screw it up — so that we can keep it until tomorrow, and for as long as we can keep this Republic steeped in our beautiful Experiment in Democracy, alive. And to that end we have Cato, and Cicero, and Socrates, the three great Stoics egging us on.
The Founders loved no other source of intellectual strength more than Cicero’s wise and virtuous writings on citizenship and Cato’s history. Especially the Virtuous Citizen of Cicero was the indispensable support to the debates that our founding fathers engaged as they debated and planned in order to establish the American Republic. The Framers of our Constitution and the Founder son our Republic engaged in this interminable debate about the kind of State they wanted to build because they were all rather intelligent and intellectually endowed with plenty of Gray Matter and dense space between their ears, inside their necktop computers we call brains, and thus through the cauldrons of intellectual fire, New Ideas emerged. Yet these new ideas had their origin in the ancient past and then the American Innovators offered drastic political innovation on top of that based on the many centuries of imagining what a great society would look like.
So this adoption of ancient Greece’s Democracy along with Rome’s Republicanism was indeed like the marriage of Cadmus and Destiny — all the more remarkable because challenges such as the pragmatic political theory of Machiavelli, the political upheaval of the Reformation, and the Enlightenment were all known to them, and yet they chose to ignore them during the gigantic effort undertaken towards the creation of this Enlightened Republic of the United States of America.
These innovative political theorists and practitioners, shied away from the early Reformation’s rejection of the use of pagan authors, and instead made the Greeks and the Romans Leaders and Authors of antiquity really relevant to the Western ideals of the day of the creation of the New Republic.
As always the proof is in the pudding, and from what we see to this day, this adoration of the ancient knowledge — served them rather well.
When the American founders attempted to articulate a vision of a good society and of an active life of virtue in politics, they turned in the same direction as Petrarch did over four hundred years before. Thomas Jefferson wrote in 1825 that the ideas of the Declaration of Independence came not only from John Locke and Algernon Sidney, but from Aristotle and Cicero.
In 1803, John Adams could admiringly quote Cicero’s description of the true public servant: “Such a man will devote himself entirely to the Republic, nor will he covet power or riches. He will adhere closely to justice and equality that provided he can
Indeed the four cardinal institutions of Western Civilization come from Greece. And the roof of our edifice, is this incredible belief in Freedom. It is almost a religious thing. And these are the same stone pillars that support our Neoclassical American Empire, as the same four principles of Civilization that the Romans made their own, as they took over from the Greeks. Our Justice System, our Logic & Rational Thinking that leads to Science and Scientific pursuits, our Freedom and Free Will enshrined in our Constitution and in our Religion too, and our Democratic principle of All men are created equal and have the obligation and the right to participate by always voting and by standing for Elections as Electors, as Tribunes, as Representatives, as Senators, as Consuls, as Magistrates, or as other office holders, even as Augustus — always having a single vote to offer towards the pursuit of honest representative government — from the people, by the people, and for the people. But above it all is the Liberty that is remembered as the Lady that greets us in the harbor of New York City holding her light aloft to guide us always and forever to this distant shore of Goodness and Godness.
Simply put, these ancient Philosophical innovations are the cornerstones that allow us today, to have a rood over our home while being Free Americans, and while living inside the Best Constitutional and Democratic Republic the world has ever known. And again these are: Justice, Reason, Free Will, and Democracy, all capped with Liberty as a Divine Right and enshrined as a uniquely human trait — only within our precious Christian Religion.
To recall, these five principles are the direct Greek descendants of the Innovations taking place in Athens for many years brewing in the underground caves of the hill of Pnyx, where a group of men conspired and dreamed for thirty five years with the dream of instituting a government of the People, by the People, and for the People. And these rebels came out of hiding and stormed the citadel of Acropolis and took over power from the Oligarchy under the guidance and the leadership of a strong man named with the nom de guerre “Isocrates” meaning Equal-State as a proto-Democrat (Greek =Democrates). Isocrates (no relation to the philosopher Socrates), saw that the institution of Democracy be given a structure that will allow it to persist against time’s erosive powers. And that was how this nascent experiment came to be the pinnacle of the ancient Athenian empire under the influence of Pericles as the best embodiment in public governance of Free people, of Free Will, and of Free Choice — all working together for a Free Government.
That these ancient Greeks bequeathed these lofty innovative ideals to the Romans, and the fact that all of the best Roman Citizens and the Rulers of the Glorious Age of Rome — spoke Greek. And not only spoke Greek but they had studied Philosophy and had also studied the Art of Oratory and Greek Rhetoric. Speaking Greek in the Roman Senate was a requirement and a privilege because the Romans treasured Classical Education as their most important educational tool, to help them advance into the world of Leadership.
Julius Caesar himself the first elected Emperor by anyone’s account, had studied Greek under a Greek tutor, in the island of Rhodes in Greece, for a whole eight years, in order to master this ancient art of speaking and leading the People, before he returned to Rome to begin his public service and his famous works of strengthening and enlarging the Roman Republic that in his lifetime changed to the Great Roman Empire.
Caesar was a truly Masterful Leader and he used the Art of Rhetoric to the advantage of his cause. A Greater Rome. His language was powerful and his use of the Art of Rhetoric emphasized the Future Glory of the Roman Republic and the Coming of the Empire of Rome. He always sought Justice of the People of Rome from the commonest Citizen to the greatest Patrician without discrimination and he instituted the beginning of the shared equity of all the people living under Rome’s border, in Italia, and by giving them the gift of Roman Citizenship as the “Latin Right” to all those outsiders living in conquered lands, a right that eventually led to the Full Roman Citizenship, under the reign of Emperor Caracalla some two centuries later…
Yet it was the same ancient art of rhetoric and oratory, that allowed for the opposite of Justice to sometimes occur. And it is exactly what the Greeks gave us plenty of instruction for — through their most eloquent tales of downfall of Great Men and Women, and through the stories of the lives of their Leaders, and the stories of their philosophers. And this is why they also warned us about carefully applying Good Free People’s governance in what was good honest government during the classical period of the Athenian Empire. A period of highly educated and honestly informed Citizenry, where Demagoguerry was punishable by ostracism. Yet this led to Rome’s demagoguery practicing professional liars of the day, and all the way to today’s fake PR newspaper hacks, to the Media pretenders, and all the way to TV partisan Journalists.
You’d be surprised to hear that the ancient Greeks had broadsheets of their own that didn’t look very different than the front page of today’s newspapers. The “papyri” were just what a public paper of record like the New Pork Times, and the Wall Street Journal are and it was what brought the news first thing along with the Public Announcements that were read form the papyri at the Agora of the ancient city.
And it was always the publisher of this morning Paper to be read at the Agora (Public Marketplace), under strict observance of the Anti-Demagoguerry laws and the publisher knew that if He failed to report the news and instead knowingly reported lies — they were to be liable to become ostracized and to have their property become the nationalized and themselves to have to leave the City for good.
And we all used to know Greek and Latin, and we all had studied the ancients carefully for some glimpses of wisdom, and we tended to remember these stories and some of us even could recite the Iliad and the Odyssey till the end of Life, because like all the well educated people throughout the ages, and those Greats coming before us, namely leaders like Julius Caesar, Richard the LionHeart, Winston Churchill, and today yours truly, we all studied ancient Greek language, the Iliad, the Odyssey, and Latin poetry, language, and customary laws, along with the whole cannon of the history of ancient Greece, Athens, and Rome.
And apparently there was a great and a good reason for that, and that’s also the same reason why it’s a bloody shame that our leaders and our public servants and our demagogue newspaper people are constantly failing us, since they stopped being properly educated and try to get through life with a half ass law degree or even worse… The reason why History and the Classical lineage of knowledge was always important is because there are no New Issues under the Sun. And if we have known how things played out i the past iterations of Historical precedent and if we can make the system analysis of situations work for us in that context — we are bound to be Great Leaders and be the kind of people that push the wheel of History in the right direction and eventually be the good leaders history is made off.
Because it’s not just that history holds important lessons, but it is that we are all products of our education, and the complex calculus of decision making is pivoting upon that platform of data rich brainscape. Knowledge is Power. Real deep knowledge gives us that special super power we need to execute our Leadership and our decision making daily.
Therefore our Classical Education is our number one investment in ourselves, and in Society, because the public sphere that we choose to serve demands the best of us.
And at the end of day, the very art of knowledge and wisdom is simply having read and deeply known in earnest the poetry of Homer, and the songs of Virgil, or the romantic poems of Lucan, and the stentorian writings of Julius Caesar on governance and on the Art of Public Service and Leadership. It is crucial to understand those primary texts as software for your brain entered there from a wise writer who lived through tough times and good times and who took decisions that were judged to be solid and judged to be correct in the historical narrative of the long ago time. Or you can read the words of an incredible geek, the Brainiac Julius Caesar and educate yourself by allowing this brain software to enter your mind. Do the same with those sane words from Seneca, or simply start getting familiar with the earliest of great Roman poetry of Catullus and then Virgil or even Cato himself. Make this effort to improve your Mind by entering the realm of the Brain of these Great Minds that are far superior to whatever our Day has got to share. That is why they are called the Classics.
Even in the Age of the Stupids, and of the Lost Millennial generation — knowing the Ancient Classics and delving deep into this esoteric knowledge, signals that we are still intelligent beings, and that we are still seeking wisdom, begging to be seen as relevant if not merely mentally alive in this boundless and timeless IDEA-SPHERE that is the great rational bubble “built” by ideas of the great men who preceded us, at the Greatest moments of History where the Greatest of the Civilized Societies that ever came into existence amongst Humans in this Earth of ours — thrived for glimpses of momentary brilliance.
That’s what you get with the Classics. Nothing else…
It helps to know that today’s America is a constitutional republic, very much in the mold of ancient Rome and it’s predecessor Democratic Athens and it’s Greek Athenian empire. The people who designed America’s governing ideals, institutions, and DNA — all were first imagined, designed, and bequeathed to us by a number of Greek and Roman citizens of yore. Yet the New American patriots and rebels who earned their Independence, and all of those other leading men of the New American Republic, had studied the history of Greece and Rome, as did the philosophers and writers and statesmen they took inspiration from, and those that these men took inspiration from, and so on all the way to the headwaters of Democratic Innovation of a government of the people, by the people, for the people.
And this created the unbreakable links of a continuous chain of Thought and Action from the past to today…
And tif you haven’t studied the Classics, this democracy we live in today, might seem flimsy, to many of you who have not studied the Greco-Roman civilization in any depth. True it sadly appears like a piece of fiction plucked from the past and laid down upon us. Or it just might feel like a piece of foreign machinery that you are supposed to operate without much integral instruction, and without an owners operational manual…
Well – if you’re not a mechanic, you wouldn’t try to fix your car without first trying to read some sort of instructions. In order to understand how our republic works, we need to understand the thoughts of the people who built it. We have to understand where they were coming from.
The Founding Fathers of the United States, and the Enlightenment philosophers they learned from — again, the people whose machine we are supposed to keep running — were obsessed with Greece and Rome. The reason why speeches from politicians keep referring to America as an “experiment” in democracy, why there is this sense that they were trying something daring and precarious, is because they lived under the shadow of Rome.
The common belief until the American founding was that democracy was destined to fail. A political system that promises formal equality can’t bear the strain of a system that will always have inequalities of status, however you try to legitimize them. In a true democracy, demagogues will win over the people with fatuous promises and showy acrobatics, and accrue enough power to destroy the very democracy that is the source of their power. (Stop me if that sounds familiar.) The reason why they believed this was because that’s exactly what happened with Rome. Hence the saying “A Republic, if you can keep it.”
If we know something about the fall of the Roman Republic, we know vaguely about Julius Caesar, about how he was a popular general who used his support within the military to effect a coup. The coup then led to a civil war in which the strongman who prevailed, Augustus, thought he would do very well with the powers Caesar had claimed for himself.
If we know a little more, we know that Caesar was not just a successful general, but a canny politician, who used his political victories not just to command the personal allegiance of the legions, but to build a populist political power base at home. We might also be faintly aware that by the time Caesar could attempt his coup, the Roman Republic was already exhausted, with a complacent elite fattened by centuries of military victory and the attendant spoils.
But what historians now refer to as the crisis of the Roman Republic had a deeper, class-based component. Like all republics, Rome understood itself through the prism of the myth of its own overthrow of tyrannic rulers and the establishment of a, ahem, more perfect union. Like all national myths, this was only partly true.
In reality, Roman society was divided into two classes, the patricians and the plebeians (words that still carry meaning today, although more faintly so); three if you count slaves, which you obviously should, although they were less active politically than the other two classes.
The patricians were the aristocracy. They were large landowners, in an era where the source of economic power was land. What’s more, while much of Italy was in theory public land, in practice patricians could farm those lands and keep the proceeds as if it was their own property. The fact that the patricians could rely on slave labor to farm this land made it even more profitable for them, even as it squeezed the plebeians out of the jobs they might have had farming. This fundamental equality between a landowning patrician class and the economically insecure plebeians is the most important thing to keep in mind about the history of the late Roman Republic.
What about the political system? Well, as is well known, Rome was run by a Senate, but the Senate was actually made up of patricians. To oversimplify, the Senate was like a legislative branch, which nominated the consuls who ran the executive. Did the plebeians not have a voice? The plebeians were represented by elected officials called tribunes, whose main power was the ability to propose legislation and to veto the Senate. The plebeians were most often wealthy patricians themselves, since it was the only way to be active in politics, but they were patricians with the common touch, and good tribunes, like good politicians, knew how to appeal to their constituencies.
In the late second century BC — decades before Caesar actually rolled around — this crushing inequality gave birth to a political crisis. Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, came to power promising to change things and reorient the Republic’s equality moorings to a better place. The Grachi brothers tried to implement various reforms to rebalance the inequality, including redistributing land and distributing grain to the Roman poor. And for a time they succeeded but their enemies were far too powerful and rebellious. And although the Grachi were popularly elected the wealthy and corrupt Patricians raised a Mob and started riots with paid rioters in order to attack the Grachi Reformers because they wanted to stop the Grachi reforms from taking away their ill gotten wealth and unjustly held popular powers.
Does this remind you of what Hillary Clinton and Podesta’s Corrupt Democrats are doing today against the incoming President Elect Donald Trump?
Are you aware that they are illegally using the money raised for the Elections by Democrats to incite Riots in order to stomp out our Democracy, by inciting rebellion of the stupid and blind masses against the Democratically selected New leader?
Does it compute in your head that these self proclaimed paragons of Democracy and liberal Socialism are destroying the very Democracy that they have vowed to protect?
Do you understand that spending campaign contribution money to paid rioters that through constant mob assemblies and violent riots, gathered through a Media monopoly controlled by few powerful Patricians and Oligarchic financiers like George Soros and a few Banks like Goldman Sachs — the insurgents of the splintered Democratic party are adding Riots, and Violence, and Vitriol, to the reasons for having an Emperor in this New Rome, the United States of America represent today.
And I am sharing this window of History of the ancient Roman Republic and it’s descent into Empire — only so that we might collectively become educated and informed enough so that we can arrest this slippery slope collapse of our Republic and avoid the fate of the original Grachi Reformers, in ancient Rome. And also so that we may regain the Peace and thus benefit from the Reforms of the incoming Trump popular administration today. Violence has no place in our political discourse within our Society today. End of Story.
And if you disagree with me and this statement of maintaining the peace — you are a fascist and her his where you need to keep on reading… Because the way it ended for the Grachi reforms and for the valiant Gaius and Tiberius leading reformers themselves, is a study of Leadership, and failure of it — in and of itself. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were a pair of tribunes of the plebs from the 2nd Century BCE, who sought to introduce land reform and other populist legislation in ancient Rome. They were both members of the Populares, a group of politicians who appealed to the average citizens and that opposed the conservative Optimates in the Roman Senate. They have been deemed the founding fathers of both socialism and populism. Tiberius Gracchus, born in 168 BCE, was the older of the Gracchi brothers. He is best known for his attempts to legislate agrarian reform and for his untimely death at the hands of the Senators. Under Tiberius’ proposal, no one citizen would be able to possess more than 500 iugera of public land (ager publicus) that was acquired during wars. Any excess land would be confiscated to the state and redistributed to the poor and homeless in small plots of about 30 iugera per family. The Roman Senate was resistant to agrarian reform because its members owned most of the land and it was the basis of their wealth. Therefore, Tiberius was very unpopular with the Senatorial elite. His main opponent was Marcus Octavius, another tribune who vetoed Tiberius’ bills from entering the Assembly and whom Tiberius had previously gotten removed from office. When King Attalus III of Pergamum died, he left his entire fortune to the people of Rome. Pergamum was one of the richest cities in the ancient world, and Tiberius wanted to use the wealth from Pergamum to find his agrarian law. This was a direct attack on Senatorial power and the Senate’s opposition to Tiberius began to increase. With his term coming to an end, Tiberius sought re-election as tribune for the following year. This was unprecedented and his opponents claimed that it was illegal and Tiberius was trying to become a tyrant. On election, violence broke out in the Senate between Tiberius’ followers and his opponents. Tiberius was beaten to death with wooden chairs and nearly 300 of his supporters suffered the same fate. These deaths marked a turning point in Roman history and a long-lasting association between violence and the office of the tribune. Tiberius was succeeded by his younger brother, Gaius Gracchus, who was also a social reformer. He was quaestor in 126 BCE and tribune of the plebs in 123 BCE. He is generally considered to be a more complex and confrontational figure than Tiberius, and he had a much clearer legislative agenda that extended beyond simple agrarian reform. Some of his laws appear to have been directed toward the people responsible for his brother’s death. Gaius Grachus renewed Tiberius’ land law and founded new colonies in Italy and Carthage. He introduced a law that no conscription of Romans under age 17 would be allowed and that the state would pay for basic military equipment. Previously, the soldier had to pay for his own equipment, which was especially difficult for the lowest census class. Like his brother, he also funded state-subsidized grain. Another law passed by Gaius imposed the death penalty on any judge who accepted a bribe to convict another Roman guilty. Gaius’ opponents tried to win away his support and he lost popular appeal by 121 BCE. After a riot broke out on the Capitoline Hill and one of Gaius’ opponents was killed, the ‘ultimate decree of the Senate’ (Senatus consultum ultimum) was passed for the first time. This law gave the Senate the power to declare anyone an enemy of the state and execute him without trial by a jury. A mob was then raised to assassinate Gaius. Knowing that his own death was imminent, Gaius committed suicide on the Aventine Hill in 121 BCE. All of his reforms were undermined except for his grain laws. Three thousand of his supporters were subsequently arrested and put to death in the proscriptions that followed.
The tribunates of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus began a turbulent period in Rome’s domestic politics, and their careers and untimely deaths emphasize both the strengths and the weaknesses of the tribunate. In the following decades, the tendency toward violence became even more clear as numerous tribunes saw their time in office come to an end with their deaths.
After a few years of continuous strife, Gaius Gracchus eventually committed suicide rather than fall prey to lynching by a mob raised up by the patrician consuls that wanted to stomp him down by force.
The failure of the Gracchi, did two things: The first was to re-establish the precedent of using force to settle political disputes. And the second was to entrench the class divisions at the heart of Roman society, since Rome’s complex system of checks and balances (plus the sheer obdurateness of the aristocratic class) couldn’t fix the problem. Of course, Rome’s aristocrats did not believe themselves to simply be defending their pocketbooks. Rome, after all, was one of the world’s most sophisticated civilizations, and its aristocracy was highly educated. It believed that in defending its privileges, it was defending itself from a, well, plebe, that was without a doubt uneducated and coarse, and held beliefs contrary to what it believed to be the values of Rome. In this background, Rome’s government, increasingly implicated in foreign wars and maintaining an empire, had to become more and more militarized and to raise taxes to keep up its expenses.
Because those conflicts were so deeply entrenched, Rome kept lurching from social to political to constitutional crisis year after year, decade after decade, so that by the time a popular strongman came along, the Republic was like a ripe fruit waiting to be plucked.
And that is how the Empire and the office of the Emperor was born…
In Rome’s history we have Roman Emperors and Empresses as rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding immense power over its citizens and military. The empire was developed as the Roman Republic invaded and occupied all of Europe and even Asia, and also great parts of the Middle East, Northern Africa and even Western Asia. Under the Roman Republic, regions of the empire were ruled by provincial governors answerable to and authorised by the “Senate and People of Rome”. Rome and its senate were ruled by a variety of magistrates – of whom the consuls were the most powerful. The republic ended, and the emperors were created, when these magistrates became legally and practically subservient to one citizen with power over all other magistrates. Augustus, the first emperor, was careful to maintain the facade of republican rule, taking no specific title for his position and calling the concentration of magisterial power Princeps Senatus (the first man of the Senate). This style of government lasted for 300 years, and is thus called the Principate era. The modern word ’emperor’ derives from the title Imperator, which was granted by an army to a successful general; during the initial phase of the empire, it still had to be earned by the ‘Princeps’. The term Emperor is a modern construction, used when describing rulers of the Roman Empire because it emphasises the strong links between the ruler and the army, on whose absolute support the ruler’s power depended, and does not discriminate between the personal styles of rule nor the separate titles in the different phases of the Empire.
In the late 3rd century, after the Crisis of the Third Century, Diocletian formalised and embellished the recent manner of Imperial rule, establishing the so-called ‘Dominate’ period of the Roman Empire. This was characterised by the explicit increase of authority in the person of the Emperor, and the use of the style ‘Dominus Noster’ (‘Our Lord’). The rise of powerful Barbarian tribes along the borders of the empire and the challenge they posed to defense of far-flung borders and unstable imperial succession led Diocletian to experiment with sharing imperial titles and responsibilities among several individuals – a partial reversion to pre-Augustian Roman traditions. For nearly two centuries thereafter there was often more than one emperor at a time, frequently dividing the administration of the vast territories between them. Yet it is important to remember that in the eyes of contemporaries the Empire was still one and indivisible. It is false to the ideas of this time to speak of ‘the Eastern and Western Empire’; the two halves of Empire were thought of as ‘the Eastern, or Western parts’ “Partes orientis vel occidentis.” However, after the death of Theodosius I (AD 395), the split became firmly entrenched between Western and Eastern Holy Roman Empire. The last pretense of such division was formally ended by Zeno after the death of Julius Nepos in 480. For the remaining thousand years of eastern Roman history there would only ever be one legitimate senior emperor, ruling from Constantinople and maintaining claim to the increasingly unstable territories in the west. After 480, multiple claims to be the imperial title of Augustus, or “Basileus” for Greek speakers, necessarily meant civil war, although the experiment with designating junior emperors, now called Caesars in order to indicate the intended successor, occasionally reappeared.
The Empire and chain of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. The use of the modern terms “Byzantium,” “Byzantine Empire,” and “Byzantine Emperor” to refer to the medieval period of the Roman Empire has been common, but not universal, among Western scholars since the 18th century, and continues to be a subject of intense historical debate today between Greek speakers and scholars and those readers able to speak merely Latin…
Donald J. Trump began his run for the White House by vowing to Make America Great Again. The pithiness of the slogan drove his opponents mad, but it worked. It communicated in just four words the reasons for his presidential campaign. When given the choice between Hillary’s self-centered “I’m With Her” and Trump’s “Make America Great Again” slogans, voters easily chose the Right One and went with Trump’s all inclusive Popular Reforms Theme of M.A.G.A. and gave the Trump/Pence Reformers a huge and overwhelming mandate to govern and root out the Corrupt Democrats.
Whether Trump will succeed in enacting policies that increase the standards of living for Americans is obviously yet to be seen. But judging by the response to his election victory, we know for a fact that he’s going to make a whole bunch of stuff great again — stuff that hasn’t been cool since 2008.
Ultimately M.A.G.A. became the winning slogan of the New Caesar of the Empire of the United States.
Make America Great Again is now the official motto of the majority law makers of the United States Senate and House.
I wish M.A.G.A. to you too.
How Donald Trump exploited the rickety foundation of the coalition of Islamists, Obama Social Democrats, Sanders loyalists, and extreme LGBT Gay and Transgender coalition under Huma, and crooked Hillary Clinton, is anybody’s guess, but am sure you all have gotten the Memo by now — that TRUMP won the Presidency of the United States under the banner of MAGA here and now.
All of which brings me to our current situation. Have you noticed the shrinking Middle Class under the last 5 administrations?
Have you noticed the extreme inequalities that have been cultivated in the American Economy with the favored 1% taking all the wealth of the country for themselves.
Have you noticed all the millions of Americans that have left the labor force completely, because they stopped even looking for a job and have gone permanently off the rolls of the unemployed?
Have you really seen that unemployment is at an all time high?
Have you noticed that people without college degrees are increasingly locked out of the economy?
Have you noticed that the Neo-Liiberal Bush Clinton elites are partying it up, while the globalized, so called meritocratic system rewards only their small elite entourage while leaving everybody else behind, outside, and exposed, to the rain without shelter?
Have you seen that the last three Presidents have been the worst President the United States had ever had? And in that deadly sequence they demoted our Republic to the level of a third World country?
Have you noticed that we only start wars that lead to retreat?
Have you noticed that we are always keen to accept Corruption as unavoidable in the reaches of government?
All of the reasons above and many others have led people to believe that maybe Now, is the best time for a Caesar to make America Great again. And that is what is happening in case you are wondering…
A New Dawn for America coming straight from new York. Its this or maybe it is at least time for the Gracchi to appear again under the leadership of Donald Trump and Mike Pence to truly make America Great again.
Because I think that there has been an increase in political violence, as is evident by the Temper Tantrum the corrupt Democrats have unleashed due to their electoral defeat, and that might lead to the army and the national guard, having to come out of the barracks and into the streets.
And while America’s economy is suffocating in it’s lackluster recovery bed, it could certainly be doing a lot better with a strong leader who balances the Military might of the United States with the Trading strength of our world beating Economy.
But the case for a Presidential Emperor parallels is there. Surely there may not be grain riots yet, but that is where Obama’s and Clinton’s miserable economic policies would surely lead to. only caring to feed well the patrician class, and offer wishful thinking of “Going High” and eating “Cake” if only they voted for Queen Hillary, and giving everybody cheap “Medical Marijuana” to medicate the pain of the plebeian class.
So the Social Class Extremes in these times of conflict are definitely at loggerheads. And the inability of the political and economic system too the Corrupt Neo-liberal Bush, and of the National Socialist Clintons, and their Globalistas Sanderites, to deliver an outcome that leaves both classes doing well kept intensifying the conflict of the Minds and Hearts of the American Citizens who sought succor in God and Country and correctly turned and voted for Donald Trump en masse.
Last Tuesday, America rejected a continuation of a corrupt and wholly crooked patrician Democrat who specialized in rigging elections and distorting the public will — and elected a tribune Magistrate led by a strong Republican.
Let that sink in for a moment now that you remember the story of the Reformers Gaius and Tiberius Grachus. Let us imagine how this played out when these Great Brothers tried to help the Common Man, the Plebeian, the Middle Class, and they were cut down while trying their best to stem the tides that led to the horrific seeds of destruction, the cancer of Corruption that grew to become the poison ivy that strangled the Great oak of the State.
Let us know that History intimately, and let’s be careful to learn the lesson, so that we can root out the weeds of Corruption today. Let us cut out the Cancer of Corruption that led to the destruction of the Roman Republic as it has always led to the loss of our Best examples Human Civilization has brought forth, so far.
Because it is up to us now to work hard towards bringing forth, some genuinely Gracchian reforms, and to drain the swamp in the hope that we can work well and fast this time around, before the retrograde Corruptors of the State take power all over again.
We have to absolutely do this together today and in this administration, because if not, I fear that we will see a New Caesar crossing the Potomac none too soon… and his name just might be Orange Julius. And it is up to us to ensure that we have a Republic and not an Empire — as long as we can keep it.
And so that we just recall the lessons of history, I offer you a list of Great Men that led our Historical antecedant, the Democratic Roman Republic and then the Roman Empire that succeeded it — through times of War, times of Progress and times of Peril…
And that is why the Roman army and the need of the seriously catastrophic times demanded the shift from a Tribune and a Senate, to a powerful Emperor… and indeed that was the end of Democracy but also the Rise of the Roman Empire. You simply can’t get an omelet without breaking eggs and as always it was the army that played “Chef” in this kitchen of Historical Transition, that brought forth a New Rome, under a wise and strong Leader whose name was Julius.
Ergo, the Empire was born. It didn’t just happen. It was designed and brought forth by the changing circumstances and the difficult straits of Historical necessity, as we experience today…
Do you care to double think now, who and what historical process is best served by the mobs engaged in constant rioting and by the confusion spreading out in our streets?
List of Emperors from Julius Caesar to Constantine:
Emperor and Time of Reign
Born: 13 July 100 BCE: Gaius Julius Caesar
10 January 49: rebelled against the Senate
9 August 48: sole ruler
15 March 44: murdered by mutinous senators
Julius Caesar Quotes:
“I love the name of honor, more than I fear death.”
“It is easier to find men who will volunteer to die, than to find those who are willing to endure pain with patience.”
“It is better to create than to learn! Creating is the essence of life.”
“In war, events of importance are the result of trivial causes.”
“I had rather be first in a village than second at Rome.”
“Experience is the teacher of all things.”
“As a rule, men worry more about what they can’t see than about what they can.”
“It is not these well-fed long-haired men that I fear, but the pale and the hungry-looking.”
“Men willingly believe what they wish.”
“What we wish, we readily believe, and what we ourselves think, we imagine others think also.”
Julius Caesar is considered the first amongst equals and in a sense he was the precursor to the Era of the Empire and certainly it’s first claimant to the throne since he was an Emperor in all but name. Yet under his leadership Rome was still a Democratic Republic led by the Senate. In due time the Rubicon was crossed and Julius Caesar became the Emperor in all but in name. And that was his downfall… but equally so the downfall of Rome.
After his assassination, he was followed by the official founder of the Roman empire Caesar Augustus who has the longest reign of 41 years starting from 27 BC to 14 AD. Born by the name of Octavian, he was given the name ‘Augustus’ by the senate as an honour for his great achievements. He went on to avenge the death of Caesar together with Mark Antony, before falling out with him. He defeated Mark Antony together with the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra and thereafter, together with the senate of Rome, created a new constitution for the great empire.
The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace that was known as Pax Romana or The Roman Peace. Yes, there were several wars at Roman frontiers for expansion and a year long civil war too, but after the succession of Augustus into the throne, the Roman world was free of any large scale warfare for more than two centuries. Augustus stood at the head of this empire as the emperor. He used his ruled wisely and built roads, aqueducts and buildings. Not only was Augustus the first, but he was most certainly one of the best emperors Rome ever had.
Augustus (Imp. Caesar Augustus) 27 BC-AD 14
Tiberius (Ti. Caesar Augustus) AD 14-37
Gaius / Caligula (C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 37-41
Claudius (Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 41-54
Nero (Imp. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 54-68
Galba (Ser. Sulpicius Galba Imp. Caesar Augustus) 68-69
Otho (Imp. M. Otho Caesar Augustus) 69
Vitellius (A. Vitellius Augustus Germanicus Imp.) 69
Vespasian (Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) 69-79
Titus (Imp. Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) 79-81
Domitian (Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus) 81-96
Nerva (Imp. Caesar Nerva Augustus) 96-98
Trajan (Imp. Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus) 98-117
Hadrian (Imp. Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus) 117-138
Antoninus Pius (Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius) 138-161
Marcus Aurelius (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) 161-180
Lucius Verus (Imp. Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus) 161-169
Commodus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus) 176-192
Pertinax (Imp. Caesar P. Helvius Pertinax Augustus) 193
Didius Julianus (Imp. Caesar M. Didius Severus Julianus Augustus) 193
Septimius Severus (Imp. Caesar L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus) 193-211
Clodius Albinus (Imp. Caesar D. Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus) 193-197
Pescennius Niger (Imp. Caesar C. Pescennius Niger Justus Augustus) 193-194
Caracalla (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) 198-217
Geta (Imp. Caesar P. Septimius Geta Augustus) 209-211
Macrinus (Imp. Caesar M. Opellius Macrinus Augustus) 217-218
Diadumenianus (Imp. Caesar M. Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus Augustus) 218
Elagabal (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) 218-222
Severus Alexander (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus) 222-235
Maximinus (Imp. Caesar C. Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus) 235-238
Gordian I (Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Senior Augustus) 238
Gordian II (Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Africanus Iunior Augustus) 238
Balbinus (Imp. Caesar D. Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Augustus) 238
Pupienus (Imp. Caesar M. Clodius Pupienus Augustus) 238
Gordian III (Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Augustus) 238-244
Philip (Imp. Caesar M. Julius Philippus Augustus) 244-249
Decius (Imp. Caesar C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus) 249-251
Trebonianus Gallus (Imp. Caesar C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus) 251-253
Volusianus (Imp. Caesar C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumianus Volusianus Augustus) 251-253
Aemilianus (Imp. Caesar M. Aemilius Aemilianus Augustus) 253
Valerian (Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus) 253-260
Gallienus (Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus) 253-268
Claudius II (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Claudius Augustus) 268-270
Quintillus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus) 270
Aurelian (Imp. Caesar Domitius Aurelianus Augustus) 270-275
Tacitus (Imp. Caesar M. Claudius Tacitus Augustus) 275-276
Florianus (Imp. Caesar M. Annius Florianus Augustus) 276
Probus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus) 276-282
Carus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carus Augustus) 282-283
Carinus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus) 283-285
Numerianus (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Numerius Numerianus Augustus) 283-284
Diocletian (Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus) 284-305
Maximian (Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus) 286-305
Constantius (Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Constantius Augustus) 305-306
Galerius (Imp. Caesar C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus) 305-311
Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus) 306-307
Maxentius (M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus) 306-312
Constantine (Imp. Caesar Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus) 307-337
Licinius (Imp. Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus) 308-324
Maximin (C. Valerius Galerius Maximinus Augustus) 308/9-313
Emperors from Diocletian to Romulus
A.= Augustus; C. = Caesar.
Emperor West Reign Emperor East Reign
Maximian C. 285-286, A. 286-305, 307-310 Diocletian A. 284-305
Constantius I C. 293-305, A. 305-306 Galerius C. 293-305, A. 305-311
Constantine C. 306-308, A. 308-337 Maximin C. 305-308, A. 308-313
Severus A. 306-307
Maxentius A. 307-312 Licinius A. 308-324
Licinianus C. 317-323
Crispus C. 317-325 Martinianus C. 324
Constantine A. 324-337
Constantine II C. 317-337, A. 337-340 Constantius II C. 324-337, A. 337-361
Constans C. 333-337, A. 337-350
Dalmatius C. 335-337 Gallus C. 350-354
Constantius II A. 351-361
Julian C. 355-360, A. 360-363 Julian A. 361-363
Jovian A. 363-364 Jovian A. 363-364
Valentinian I A. 364-375 Valens A. 364-378
Gratian A. 375-383
Maximus A. 383-387 Theodosius I A. 379-395
Valentinian II A. 383-392
Theodosius I A. 394-395
Honorius A. 395-423 Arcadius A. 395-408
Constantius III A. 421 Theodosius II A. 408-450
Valentinian III A. 425-455 Marcian A. 450-457
Petronius Maximus A. 455
Avitus A. 455-456
Majorian A. 457-461 Leo I A. 457-474
Libius Severus A. 461-465
Anthemius A. 467-472
Olybrius A. 472
Glycerius A. 473
Julius Nepos A. 473-480 Leo II A. 474
Romulus A. 475-476 Zeno A. 474-491
Anastasius A. 491-518
Justin I A. 518-527
Justinian A. 527-565
Justin II A. 565-578
Tiberius Constantine C. 574-578, A. 578-582
Maurice A. 582-602